University of Oulu

Nguyen, T., Katila, R., & Gia, T. N. (2023). An advanced Internet-of-Drones System with Blockchain for improving quality of service of Search and Rescue: A feasibility study. Future Generation Computer Systems, 140, 36–52.

An advanced Internet-of-Drones system with blockchain for improving quality of service of Search and Rescue : a feasibility study

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Author: Nguyen, Tri1; Katila, Risto2; Gia, Tuan Nguyen2
Organizations: 1Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Computing, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2022-10-26


Drone-based systems supporting Search and Rescue (SAR) missions help expeditiously improve the possibility of discovering the missing victims. Nonetheless, the current drone-based systems have some limitations, such as the need for humans in control of large-scale drones, drone’s energy inefficiency, repercussion of quality of service (QoS) from abnormalities events, shortages of automaticity and real-time interactions, deficiency of swift decisions from artificial intelligence-based SAR, and underestimation of security issues in SAR systems. Therefore, developing a more advanced drone-based system is necessary to overcome these limitations. However, it is challenging to achieve the target due to trade-off relationships of technologies and strict requirements of time-critical SAR. This paper studies the feasibility of an Internet-of-Drones (IoD) system using blockchain and artificial intelligence at the edge to overcome limitations and improve SAR QoS. An advanced IoD system architecture from drones to a back-end system and end-users terminals has been proposed. Furthermore, advanced edge services and artificial intelligence at the edge have been presented for automatically searching for missing persons. In addition, computation offloading approaches have been provided to improve the energy efficiency of drones and reduce system latency. Last but not least, public and private blockchain, including Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric, for providing secure and decentralized healthcare platform has been investigated and analyzed to enable real-time interaction between healthcare entities and improves healthcare services. The results show that the proposed system helps overcome the limitations and improve the SAR QoS. Besides, the proposed system satisfies the security requirements, including confidentiality, integrity, authentication, authorization, access control, privacy, trust, transparency, availability, automaticity, and tolerance.

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Series: Future generation computer systems
ISSN: 0167-739X
ISSN-E: 1872-7115
ISSN-L: 0167-739X
Volume: 140
Pages: 36 - 52
DOI: 10.1016/j.future.2022.10.002
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: Tri Nguyen is supported by TrustedMaaS project by the Infotech institute of the University of Oulu, Finland, Nokia Foundation, Finland, Tauno Tönning Foundation, Finland, and Academy of Finland , 6G Flagship program (grant 346208).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 346208
Detailed Information: 346208 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (