University of Oulu

Bhuyan, M. A. H., Kurtulus, C., Heponiemi, A., & Luukkonen, T. (2023). Peracetic acid as a novel blowing agent in the direct foaming of alkali-activated materials. Applied Clay Science, 231, 106727.

Peracetic acid as a novel blowing agent in the direct foaming of alkali-activated materials

Saved in:
Author: Bhuyan, M.A.H.1; Kurtulus, C.2; Heponiemi, A.3;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Erkki Koiso-Kanttilan katu, Oulu 90014, Finland
2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar 03200, Turkiye
3Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, Erkki Koiso-Kanttilan katu, Oulu 90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.2 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2022-11-02


In this study, peracetic acid (PAA) was investigated as a novel blowing agent for the preparation of porous alkali-activated materials from metakaolin or blast furnace slag by the direct foaming method. PAA is an organic peroxide with lower stability of the O–O bond in comparison to H₂O₂. It also introduces acetate anions to the system, which can chelate cations to potentially increase the extent of precursor dissolution and decrease the surface tension of the gas-liquid interfaces prompting open porosity formation. PAA was compared with H₂O₂ to prepare porous alkali-activated materials by characterizing setting time, compressive strength, reaction kinetics (by isothermal calorimetry), porosity (by mercury intrusion porosimetry and helium gas pycnometry), and chemical composition (by electron probe microanalyzer, EPMA). The most significant finding was that the use of PAA caused 92%–94% and 72%–80% lower volume increase compared to H₂O₂ upon curing for metakaolin and blast furnace slag-based foams, respectively. The enhanced dissolution of the precursors when using PAA were observed from the EPMA analysis, which promoted higher compressive strength for PAA-based foams (451–537% compared to H₂O₂-based foams). There was also an indication that the use of PAA promoted the open porosity formation. As a practical implication, PAA could be well suited for applications in which the volume increase during the foam setting must be minimized.

see all

Series: Applied clay science
ISSN: 0169-1317
ISSN-E: 1872-9053
ISSN-L: 0169-1317
Volume: 231
Article number: 106727
DOI: 10.1016/j.clay.2022.106727
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (grant #326291) and the Center for Material Analysis at the University of Oulu (access to analytical instruments). Authors are grateful to Professor Mirja Illikainen for her contribution to funding acquisition.
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (