University of Oulu

Aghahasani, M.; Gharehghani, A.; Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, A.; Mikulski, M.; Pesyridis, A.; Megaritis, T.; Könnö, J. Numerical Study on Hydrogen–Gasoline Dual-Fuel Spark Ignition Engine. Processes 2022, 10, 2249.

Numerical study on hydrogen–gasoline dual-fuel spark ignition engine

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Author: Aghahasani, Mahdi1; Gharehghani, Ayat1; Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, Amin2,3;
Organizations: 1School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 13114-16846, Iran
2Machine and Vehicle Design (MVD), Materials and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
3Centre for Advanced Powertrain and Fuels Research (CAPF), Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK
4School of Technology and Innovation, Energy Technology, University of Vaasa, Wolffintie 34, FI-65200 Vaasa, Finland
5College of Engineering, Alasala University, King Fahad Bin Abdulaziz Rd., Dammam 31483, Saudi Arabia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-02


Hydrogen, as a suitable and clean energy carrier, has been long considered a primary fuel or in combination with other conventional fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Since the density of hydrogen is very low, in port fuel-injection configuration, the engine’s volumetric efficiency reduces due to the replacement of hydrogen by intake air. Therefore, hydrogen direct in-cylinder injection (injection after the intake valve closes) can be a suitable solution for hydrogen utilization in spark ignition (SI) engines. In this study, the effects of hydrogen direct injection with different hydrogen energy shares (HES) on the performance and emissions characteristics of a gasoline port-injection SI engine are investigated based on reactive computational fluid dynamics. Three different injection timings of hydrogen together with five different HES are applied at low and full load on a hydrogen–gasoline dual-fuel SI engine. The results show that retarded hydrogen injection timing increases the concentration of hydrogen near the spark plug, resulting in areas with higher average temperatures, which led to NOX emission deterioration at −120 Crank angle degree After Top Dead Center (CAD aTDC) start of injection (SOI) compared to the other modes. At −120 CAD aTDC SOI for 50% HES, the amount of NOX was 26% higher than −140 CAD aTDC SOI. In the meanwhile, an advanced hydrogen injection timing formed a homogeneous mixture of hydrogen, which decreased the HC and soot concentration, so that −140 CAD aTDC SOI implied the lowest amount of HC and soot. Moreover, with the increase in the amount of HES, the concentrations of CO, CO₂ and soot were reduced. Having the HES by 50% at −140 CAD aTDC SOI, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM), CO and CO₂ were reduced by 96.3%, 90% and 46%, respectively. However, due to more complete combustion and an elevated combustion average temperature, the amount of NOX emission increased drastically.

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Series: Processes
ISSN: 2227-9717
ISSN-E: 2227-9717
ISSN-L: 2227-9717
Volume: 10
Issue: 11
Article number: 2249
DOI: 10.3390/pr10112249
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 214 Mechanical engineering
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (