University of Oulu

Hammam, A., Nasr, M. I., El-Sadek, M. H., Omran, M., Ahmed, A., Li, Y., Xiong, Y., & Yu, Y. (2022). Comparative Study on the Isothermal Reduction Kinetics of Iron Oxide Pellet Fines with Carbon-Bearing Materials. Sustainability, 14(14), 8647.

Comparative study on the isothermal reduction kinetics of iron oxide pellet fines with carbon-bearing materials

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Author: Hammam, Abourehab1,2; Nasr, Mahmoud I.2; El-Sadek, Mohamed H.2;
Organizations: 1State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
2Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87, Helwan 11722, Egypt
3Process Metallurgy Research Group, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, 90100 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-04


The isothermal reduction of iron oxide pellet fines–carbon composites was investigated at temperatures of 900–1100 °C. The reduction reactions were monitored using the thermogravimetric (TG) technique. Alternatively, a Quadruple Mass Spectrometer (QMS) analyzed the CO and CO² gases evolved from the reduction reactions. The effect of temperature, carbon source, and reaction time on the rate of reduction was extensively studied. The phase composition and the morphological structure of the reduced composites were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the reduction rate was affected by the temperature and source of carbon. For all composite compacts, the reduction rate, as well as the conversion degree (α) increased with increasing temperature. Under the same temperature, the conversion degree and the reduction rate of composites were greater according to using the following carbon sources order: Activated charcoal > charcoal > coal. The reduction of the different composites was shown to occur stepwise from hematite to metallic iron. The reduction, either by activated charcoal or charcoal, is characterized by two behaviors. During the initial stage, the chemical reaction model (1 − α)−2 controls the reduction process whereas the final stage is controlled by gas diffusion [1 − (1 − α)1/2]². In the case of reduction with coal, the reduction mechanism is regulated by the Avrami–Erofeev model [−ln (1−α)²] at the initial stage. The rate-controlling mechanism is the 3-D diffusion model (Z-L-T), namely [(1−α)−1/3−1]² at the latter stage. The results indicated that using biomass carbon sources is favorable to replace fossil-origin carbon-bearing materials for the reduction of iron oxide pellet fines.

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Series: Sustainability
ISSN: 2071-1050
ISSN-E: 2071-1050
ISSN-L: 2071-1050
Volume: 14
Issue: 14
Article number: 8647
DOI: 10.3390/su14148647
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
116 Chemical sciences
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This research was funded by the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning (No. TP2015039), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51974182), the National 111 project, Grant/Award No. 17002, and CSC support for Ph.D. from the Belt and Road Countries.
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (