University of Oulu

Kallio, E., Kero, A., Harri, A.-M., Kestilä, A., Aikio, A., Fontell, M., et al. (2022). Radar—CubeSat transionospheric HF propagation observations: Suomi 100 satellite and EISCAT HF facility. Radio Science, 57, e2022RS007516.

Radar—CubeSat transionospheric HF propagation observations : Suomi 100 satellite and EISCAT HF facility

Saved in:
Author: Kallio, Esa1; Kero, Antti2; Harri, Ari-Matti3;
Organizations: 1School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
2University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
4EISCAT Scientific Association, Ramfjordmoen, Norway
5UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.6 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: American Geophysical Union, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-07


Radio waves provide a useful diagnostic tool to investigate the properties of the ionosphere because the ionosphere affects the transmission and properties of high frequency (HF) electromagnetic waves. We have conducted a transionospheric HF-propagation research campaign with a nanosatellite on a low-Earth polar orbit and the EISCAT HF transmitter facility in Tromsø, Norway, in December 2020. In the active measurement, the EISCAT HF facility transmitted sinusoidal 7.953 MHz signal which was received with the High frEquency rAdio spectRomEteR (HEARER) onboard 1 Unit (size: 10 × 10 × 10 cm) Suomi 100 space weather nanosatellite. Data analysis showed that the EISCAT HF signal was detected with the satellite’s radio spectrometer when the satellite was the closest to the heater along its orbit. Part of the observed variations seen in the signal was identified to be related to the heater’s antenna pattern and to the transmitted pulse shapes. Other observed variations can be related to the spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere and its different responses to the used transmission frequencies and to the transmitted O- and X-wave modes. Some trends in the observed signal may also be associated to changes in the properties of ionospheric plasma resulting from the heater’s electromagnetic wave energy. This paper is, to authors’ best knowledge, the first observation of this kind of “self-absorption” measured from the transionospheric signal path from a powerful radio source on the ground to the satellite-borne receiver.

see all

Series: Radio science
ISSN: 0048-6604
ISSN-E: 1944-799X
ISSN-L: 0048-6604
Volume: 57
Issue: 10
Article number: e2022RS007516
DOI: 10.1029/2022rs007516
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: The authors would like to thank Finnish Prime Minister's Office, The Magnus Ehrnrooth Foundation and the Academy of Finland (Decisions Nos. 348784 and 314664) for the financial support of the Suomi 100 satellite project. The work of AK is funded by the Tenure Track Project in Radio Science at Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory/University of Oulu.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 314664
Detailed Information: 314664 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: The HEARER instrument's data used in the study are available at Zenodo via Digisonde data since 2003 is available at
Copyright information: © 2022. The Authors.This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.