University of Oulu

Simões dos Reis, G., Mayandi Subramaniyam, C., Cárdenas, A. D., Larsson, S. H., Thyrel, M., Lassi, U., & García-Alvarado, F. (2022). Facile synthesis of sustainable activated biochars with different pore structures as efficient additive-carbon-free anodes for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries. ACS Omega, acsomega.2c06054.

Facile synthesis of sustainable activated biochars with different pore structures as efficient additive-carbon-free anodes for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries

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Author: Simões dos Reis, Glaydson1; Mayandi Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar2; Duarte Cárdenas, Angélica2;
Organizations: 1Biomass Technology Centre, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden
2Chemistry and Biochemistry Dpto., Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, 28668 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain
3Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
4Unit of Applied Chemistry, University of Jyvaskyla, Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, Talonpojankatu 2B, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Chemical Society, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-18


The present work elucidates facile one-pot synthesis from biomass forestry waste (Norway spruce bark) and its chemical activation yielding high specific surface area (SBET) biochars as efficient lithium- and sodium-ion storage anodes. The chemically activated biochar using ZnCl2 (Biochar-1) produced a highly mesoporous carbon containing 96.1% mesopores in its structure as compared to only 56.1% mesoporosity from KOH-activated biochars (Biochar-2). The latter exhibited a lower degree of graphitization with disordered and defective carbon structures, while the former presented more formation of ordered graphite sheets in its structure as analyzed from Raman spectra. In addition, both biochars presented a high degree of functionalities on their surfaces but Biochar-1 presented a pyridinic-nitrogen group, which helps improve its electrochemical response. When tested electrochemically, Biochar-1 showed an excellent rate capability and the longest capacity retentions of 370 mA h g–1 at 100 mA g–1 (100 cycles), 332.4 mA h g–1 at 500 mA g–1 (1000 cycles), and 319 mA h g–1 at 1000 mA g–1 after 5000 cycles, rendering as an alternative biomass anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Moreover, as a negative electrode in sodium-ion batteries, Biochar-1 delivered discharge capacities of 147.7 mA h g–1 at 50 mA g–1 (140 cycles) and 126 mA h g–1 at 100 mA g–1 after 440 cycles.

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Series: ACS omega
ISSN: 2470-1343
ISSN-E: 2470-1343
ISSN-L: 2470-1343
Volume: In press
DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.2c06054
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: This research was funded by Bio4Energy, a Strategic Research Environment appointed by the Swedish government, and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. The Raman measurement was performed at the Vibrational Spectroscopy Core Facility (ViSp), Chemical Biological Centre (KBC), Umeå University. The Umeå Core Facility for Electron Microscopy (UCEM-NMI node) at the Chemical Biological Centre (KBC), Umeå University, is gratefully acknowledged. Electrochemical characterization at Universidad San Pablo CEU was carried out with the financial support of MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 (Project PID2019-106662RB-C41).
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.