University of Oulu

F. Helder C. Santos F., Plínio S. Dester, Pedro H.J. Nardelli, Elvis M.G. Stancanelli, P. Cardieri, Dick Carrillo, Hirley Alves, Multi-class random access wireless network: General results and performance analysis of LoRaWAN, Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 135, 2022, 102946, ISSN 1570-8705,

Multi-class random access wireless network : general results and performance analysis of LoRaWAN

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Author: Santos F., F. Helder C.1; Dester, Plínio S.2; Nardelli, Pedro H. J.3,4;
Organizations: 1Federal University of Ceará, Quixadá Campus, Quixadá, 63902-580, Brazil
2School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Campinas, Brazil
3LUT University, Finland
4University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-18


This paper presents new analytical results for evaluating the ALOHA-like multi-class random access wireless network’s performance. The proposed model is motivated by the growth of low-power wireless networks that employ random access protocols. In particular, we compare our analytical formulation with system-level simulations of Long Range (LoRa) technology. We show that the proposed formulation provides an accurate approximation of LoRaWAN performance capturing its main trade-offs. The main contributions are (i) an extensive analysis of the impact of different LoRa spreading factors (SFs) allocation strategies, including area intersection among SFs, which is little explored in the literature and represents the optimal approach under some conditions; and (ii) the optimal proportion of users that maximizes the network throughput for each class and for each allocation strategy considered in the paper.

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Series: Ad hoc networks
ISSN: 1570-8705
ISSN-E: 1570-8713
ISSN-L: 1570-8705
Volume: 135
Article number: 102946
DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2022.102946
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This paper is partly supported by Foundation for Research Support of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (Grant No. 2017/21347-0). This work as also financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001. This paper is partly supported by Academy of Finland via: (a) ee-IoT n.319009, (b) FIREMAN consortium CHIST-ERA-17-BDSI-003/n.326270, and (c) EnergyNet Fellowship n.321265/n.328869. This paper is partly supported by 6G Flagship (Grant n.318927), and ee-IoT (n.319008) and FIREMAN consortium ( CHIST-ERA-17-BDSI-003/n.24303093).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
319008 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (