University of Oulu

Saunajoki, A., Auvinen, J., Bloigu, A., Saramies, J., Tuomilehto, J., Uusitalo, H., Hussi, E., Cederberg-Tamminen, H., Suija, K., Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S., & Timonen, M. (2022). Elevated One-Hour Post-Load Glucose Is Independently Associated with Albuminuria: A Cross-Sectional Population Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(14), 4124.

Elevated one-hour post-load glucose is independently associated with albuminuria : a cross-sectional population study

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Author: Saunajoki, Anni1; Auvinen, Juha1,2; Bloigu, Aini1;
Organizations: 1Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, 90220 Oulu, Finland
2Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, 90220 Oulu, Finland
3South Karelia Social and Health Care District, 53130 Lappeenranta, Finland
4Department of Public Health and Welfare, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland
5Diabetes Research Group, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22254, Saudi Arabia
6Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, 33014 Tampere, Finland
7Tays Eye Centre, Tampere University Hospital, 33014 Tampere, Finland
8Department of Endocrinology, Abdominal Center, Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
9Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
10Healthcare and Social Services of Selänne, 98530 Pyhäjärvi, Finland
11Unit of General Practice, Oulu University Hospital, 90220 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-18


The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the associations between albuminuria and fasting (FPG), 1 h post-load (1 h PG) and 2 h post-load plasma glucose (2 h PG) in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A total of 496 people free of known diabetes (mean age 72 years) participated in the examinations including the OGTT with plasma glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h and levels of HbA1c. Albuminuria was determined by the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and was defined as ≥3.0 mg/mmol. Compared with those without albuminuria, participants with albuminuria had significantly higher 1 h PG and 2 h PG levels, but not FPG or HbA1c levels. An elevated 1 h PG increased the estimated odds ratio of albuminuria more than three times in people with prediabetic 1 h PG (8.6–11.5 mmol/L: OR 3.60; 95% CI 1.70–7.64) and diabetic 1 h PG (≥11.6 mmol/L: OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.29–7.23). After adjusting for blood pressure and age, the association of elevated 1 h PG with albuminuria remained significant. Prediabetic or diabetic FPG, 2 h PG, or HbA1c did not have a statistically significant association with albuminuria. These findings suggest that 1 h PG seems to be the best glycemic parameter and is useful in recognizing persons with an elevated risk of early kidney disease due to hyperglycemia.

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Series: Journal of clinical medicine
ISSN: 2077-0383
ISSN-E: 2077-0383
ISSN-L: 2077-0383
Volume: 11
Issue: 14
Article number: 4124
DOI: 10.3390/jcm11144124
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: A.S. received grants from the Diabetes Research Foundation, Finnish Medical Foundation, Alfred Kordelin Foundation and Paavo Ilmari Ahvenainen Foundation. J.T. owns stocks in Orion Pharma and received an honorarium from Eli Lilly. The Savitaipale study was financially supported by grants from Elsemay Björn Fund and Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital district.
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (