University of Oulu

Saarinen, A., Granö, N., Hintsanen, M., Lehtimäki, T., Cloninger, C., & Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. (2022). Bidirectional pathways between psychosocial risk factors and paranoid ideation in a general nonclinical population. Development and Psychopathology, 34(1), 421-430. doi:10.1017/S0954579420001030

Bidirectional pathways between psychosocial risk factors and paranoid ideation in a general nonclinical population

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Author: Saarinen, Aino1,2; Granö, Niklas3; Hintsanen, Mirka1;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Psychology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
3Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
4Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center-Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
5Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA
6Anthropedia Foundation, St. Louis, MO, USA
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.5 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Cambridge University Press, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-21


We investigated (a) whether psychosocial factors (experienced stress, anticipatory worry, social detachment, sleeping disturbances, alcohol use) predict the course of paranoid ideation between the ages of 24 to 50 years and (b) whether the predictive relationships are more likely to proceed from the psychosocial factors to paranoid ideation, or vice versa. The participants (N = 1534–1553) came from the population-based Young Finns study. Paranoid ideation and psychosocial factors were assessed by reliable self-report questionnaires in 2001, 2007, and 2011/2012. The data were analyzed using growth curve and structural equation models. High experienced stress, anticipatory worry, social detachment, frequent sleeping disturbances, and frequent alcohol use predicted more paranoid ideation. More risk factors predicted increasing paranoid ideation. There were bidirectional predictive relationships of paranoid ideation with experienced stress, anticipatory worry, social detachment, and sleeping disturbances. The link between alcohol use and paranoid ideation was only correlative. In conclusion, paranoid ideation increases by reciprocal interactions with stress, worry, social detachment, and sleeping disturbances. The findings support the threat–anticipation model of paranoid ideation, providing important implications for treatment of paranoia.

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Series: Development and psychopathology
ISSN: 0954-5794
ISSN-E: 1469-2198
ISSN-L: 0954-5794
Volume: 34
Issue: 1
Pages: 421 - 430
DOI: 10.1017/S0954579420001030
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 515 Psychology
Funding: This study was supported financially by the Academy of Finland (M.H., grant number 308676). The Young Finns Study has been financially supported by the Academy of Finland: Grants 322098, 286284, 134309 (Eye), 126925, 121584, 124282, 129378 (Salve), 117797 (Gendi), and 41071 (Skidi); the Social Insurance Institution of Finland; Competitive State Research Financing of the Expert Responsibility area of Kuopio, Tampere and Turku University Hospitals (grant X51001); the Juho Vainio Foundation; the Sigrid Juselius Foundation; the Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation; the Paavo Nurmi Foundation; the Finnish Foundation of Cardiovascular Research the Finnish Cultural Foundation; the Tampere Tuberculosis Foundation; the Emil Aaltonen Foundation; and Diabetes Research Foundation of Finnish Diabetes Association. The funding source had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, writing of the report, or in the decision to submit the article for publication.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 308676
Detailed Information: 308676 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: This article has been published in a revised form in []. This version is free to view and download for private research and study only. Not for re-distribution or re-use. © The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press.