University of Oulu

Moukannaa, S., Aboulayt, A., Hakkou, R., Benzaazoua, M., Ohenoja, K., Palomo, A., & Fernández-Jimenez, A. (2022). Fusion of phosphate by-products and glass waste for preparation of alkali-activated binders. Composites Part B: Engineering, 242, 110044.

Fusion of phosphate by-products and glass waste for preparation of alkali-activated binders

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Author: Moukannaa, Samira1; Aboulayt, Abdelilah2; Hakkou, Rachid3,4;
Organizations: 1Inorganic Binders Group, Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit (FPERU), University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran Katu 1, 90014, Oulu, Finland
2National School of Architecture of Tetouan, Avenue Baghdad, Touabel Soufla, Tetouan, 93040, Morocco
3Mohammed VI Polytechnic University (UM6P), Mining Environment & Circular Economy (EMEC), Ben Guerir, 43150, Morocco
4Cadi Ayyad University (UCA), Faculty of Science and Technology, IMED-Lab, BP549, Av. A. El Khattabi, Marrakech, 40000, Morocco
5Eduardo Torroja Institute (IETcc), CSIC, C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033, Madrid, Spain
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-23


Landfilling of mine and industrial waste streams leads to environmental and economic issues. Sustainable management methods through valorization in manufacturing green construction materials are a current research interest. Here, a promising process for recycling mine tailings, such as phosphate sludge, is proposed. A mixture of phosphate sludge, kaolin clay (Al source), and glass waste (Si source) was prepared. Three fluxing agents were tested at 1000 °C (NaOH, Na2CO3, Na2SO4). Na2CO3 was selected as the most cost-effective. The precursors were alkaline activated with NaOH solution (2, 6, and 8 M). At 28 days of curing (20 h room temperature + 6 h 85 °C + room temperature), the best compressive strength (of more than 45 MPa) was obtained with 8 M NaOH. The reaction products, characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and MAS NMR, show that the main reaction products is a gel N–A–S–H/(N,C)–A–S–H together with some unreacted crystalline phases formed during the fusion.

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Series: Composites. Part B, Engineering
ISSN: 1359-8368
ISSN-E: 1879-1069
ISSN-L: 1359-8368
Volume: 242
Article number: 110044
DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2022.110044
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors wish to thank the European Union for the project LIFE19 ENV IT 000165 - LIFE FREEDOM, and the Spanish Ministry of the Science and Innovation and funds FEDER, under research projects PID2019-111464RB-I00.
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (