University of Oulu

Leppänen, E., Akhoundian, M., Sainio, S., Etula, J., Pitkänen, O., & Laurila, T. (2022). Structure-property relationships in carbon electrochemistry. Carbon, 200, 375–389.

Structure-property relationships in carbon electrochemistry

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Author: Leppänen, Elli1,2; Akhoundian, Maedeh1; Sainio, Sami1,2,3;
Organizations: 1Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, 00076, Aalto, Finland
2Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA
3Microelectronics Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, PO Box 4500, 90570, Oulu, Finland
4Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, PO Box 16200, 00076, Aalto, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-23


Carbonaceous nanomaterials can be a game changing materials in many technological fields, especially in electroanalytical applications. However, there is no consensus on the associations between the structure and electrochemical performance of these nanomaterials — even for the most basic electrochemical properties. This challenge stems from the fact that typically carbonaceous nanomaterials are obtained from various sources and not characterized properly. Therefore, to solve this deadlock we carry out systematic electrochemical characterization for a set of in-house fabricated as well as physicochemically thoroughly characterized carbon nanomaterials. We will then proceed to establish structure — performance associations for these materials. In addition, we will highlight how sensitive the electrochemical performance of these materials can be to small changes in their structural properties. Further, we emphasize the lack of correlation between electrochemical performance of electrode materials as determined using outer sphere redox (OSR) and inner sphere redox (ISR) probes the latter being highly analyte specific. As a first consistent set of electrochemical data obtained by using well characterized carbonaceous nanomaterials, this work will provide solid basis to expand the use of these materials in more complex electroanalytical as well as other applications.

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Series: Carbon. An international journal founded in conjunction with the American Carbon Society
ISSN: 0008-6223
ISSN-E: 1873-3891
ISSN-L: 0008-6223
Volume: 200
Pages: 375 - 389
DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2022.08.076
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 221 Nanotechnology
216 Materials engineering
116 Chemical sciences
114 Physical sciences
Funding: The authors acknowledge Laura Ferrel Pascual for taking the SEM images and Touko Liljeström for fabricating ta-C film. Bjørn Mikladal from Canatu Oy is acknowledged for fabricating SWCNT network. The authors also acknowledge Dr. Jessica Koehne for providing facilities at NASA Ames research center and much appreciated guidance with respect to CNF fabrication. Use of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under contract no. DE-AC02-76SF00515. M.A. acknowledges funding from the Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation and S.S from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 841621.
EU Grant Number: (841621) TACOMA - Towards Application specific tailoring of CarbOn nanoMAterials
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (