University of Oulu

Ghafouri, M., Amraei, M., Pokka, A.-P., Björk, T., Larkiola, J., Piili, H., & Zhao, X.-L. (2022). Mechanical properties of butt-welded ultra-high strength steels at elevated temperatures. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 198, 107499.

Mechanical properties of butt-welded ultra-high strength steels at elevated temperatures

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Author: Ghafouri, Mehran1; Amraei, Mohsen2; Pokka, Aki-Petteri3;
Organizations: 1Laboratory of Steel Structures, School of Energy Systems, LUT University, P.O. Box 20, 53851 Lappeenranta, Finland
2Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Turku, Turku 20520, Finland
3Materials and Production Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90570 Oulu, Finland
4Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-24


Variety of ultra-high strength steels (UHSS) with different microstructural characteristics is becoming available with continuous development of the manufacturing process in the steel industries. In order to effectively design structures made of such steel grades, a detailed knowledge of the mechanical properties is vital. Fire safety design is one of the areas in which such knowledge is essential. Welding process is indispensable in construction of steels structures with inevitable welding-induced degradation of mechanical properties of UHSSs. Thus, conducting experimental research on elevated-temperature constitutive mechanical behavior of welded joints made of UHSSs is of paramount importance. This study addresses elevated-temperature mechanical properties of as-received and as-welded S960 (manufactured via direct quenching technique) and S1100 (quenched and tempered) steel grades. A fully automated gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process with low heat input value was utilized to join the steel plates. Next, steady-state uniaxial tensile tests in the temperature range between room temperature (RT) and 900 °C were carried out. Accordingly, reduction factor-temperature relations for each tested steel in both as-received and as-welded forms are discussed and compared with several design standards, as well as with previous studies in the literature. Finally, predictive equations are proposed to estimate the elevated-temperature mechanical properties reduction factors of the tested UHSSs in as-received and as-welded forms.

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Series: Journal of constructional steel research
ISSN: 0143-974X
ISSN-E: 1873-5983
ISSN-L: 0143-974X
Volume: 198
Article number: 107499
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2022.107499
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The financial support of this research from “Finnish Foundation for Technology Promotion”, and “Business Finland” (BF) through the ISA-LUT project is highly appreciated. The support of SSAB Europe in providing the steel materials for this research is acknowledged. The authors also wish to thank the staff members of the Steel Structures research group at LUT University, and Material Production Engineering of Oulu University for assisting in conducting the experiments.
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (