University of Oulu

El Batri, B., Maskour, L., Ksiksou, J., Jeronen, E., Ismaili, J., Alami, A., & Lachkar, M. (2022). Teaching Environmental Themes within the “Scientific Awakening” Course in Moroccan Primary School: Approaches, Methods and Difficulties. Education Sciences, 12(11), 837. MDPI AG. Retrieved from

Teaching environmental themes within the “Scientific Awakening” course in Moroccan primary school : approaches, methods and difficulties

Saved in:
Author: El Batri, Bouchta1,2; Maskour, Lhoussaine3,4; Ksiksou, Jamal5;
Organizations: 1Regional Center for Education and Training Professions (CRMEF Fez-Meknes), Fez 30000, Morocco
2Engineering Laboratory of Organometallic, Molecular Materials, and Environment (LIMOME), Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, Fez 30000, Morocco
3Regional Center for Education and Training Professions (CRMEF), Dakhla-Oued Eddahab 73000, Morocco
4Laboratory of Science and Technology Research (LRST), ESEF, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir 80000, Morocco
5Sociology-Psychology Laboratory, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez 30000, Morocco
6Faculty of Education, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
7Laboratory of Humanities, Entrepreneurship and Digital Studies, Moulay Ismail University of Meknes, Meknes 50050, Morocco
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-25


In addition to identifying the pedagogical approaches favoured by teachers in environmental education, the study aims to reveal the impact of the teaching methods and tools used as well as the teaching difficulties encountered on the effectiveness of teachers’ pedagogical action, particularly in the “Scientific Awakening” course. The study concerns a sample of 636 primary school teachers from the urban and rural areas of the Fez-Meknes Regional Academy of Education in Morocco. The data was collected using a 37-item questionnaire covering the following variables: the teaching methods adopted, the preferred pedagogical approaches, the teaching material used, and the teaching difficulties encountered. The study fits under a descriptive correlational design. The most used teaching methods were the teacher-centred oral methods (dialogue and demonstration method) lacking learner-centred activities (working in small groups, discovery method). The least used ones were laboratory experiments and ICT-based demonstrations. The study shows that teachers who use active methods are the most aware of difficulties in teaching environmental issues and were the most capable of effectively solving learning problems and achieving pedagogical objectives. The study shows that Moroccan primary school teachers need in-service training for the adoption of a systemic and interdisciplinary pedagogical approach. In addition, to address the issue of the alarming failure to complete the “Scientific Awakening” program, we recommend continuous training for the benefit of teachers. This training should cover the appropriate active methods to effectively complete this program. Finally, the study underlined the need to solve the problem of the enormous lack of teaching tools. Certainly, this shortage significantly influences the pedagogical action of teachers regardless of the pedagogical methods adopted.

see all

Series: Education sciences
ISSN: 2227-7102
ISSN-E: 2227-7102
ISSN-L: 2227-7102
Volume: 12
Issue: 11
Article number: 837
DOI: 10.3390/educsci12110837
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (