University of Oulu

Adediran, A., Yliniemi, J., Lemougna, P. N., Perumal, P., & Illikainen, M. (2023). Recycling high volume Fe-rich fayalite slag in blended alkali-activated materials: Effect of ladle and blast furnace slags on the fresh and hardened state properties. Journal of Building Engineering, 63, 105436.

Recycling high volume Fe-rich fayalite slag in blended alkali-activated materials : effect of ladle and blast furnace slags on the fresh and hardened state properties

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Author: Adediran, Adeolu1; Yliniemi, Juho1; Lemougna, Patrick N.2,3;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Materials and Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels, Belgium
3Department of Minerals Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Mineral Industries (EGCIM), University of Ngaoundere, P.O. Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 8.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2022-11-25


The valorization of Fe-rich fayalite slag (FS) as a precursor for alkali-activated materials (AAMs) is hampered by its low reactivity at ambient temperature. Here, FS was blended with waste-based reactive co-binders such as ladle slag (LS) and blast furnace slag (BFS) to improve the fresh and hardened state properties of the AAMs for potential construction applications. The results showed that the incorporation of LS and BFS as an additional source of Ca and Al accelerated the reaction kinetics and influenced the binder gel type and formation mechanism. In all the mixes, Fe, Si and Na are present in the evolving binder gel. In addition to these elements, the binder gel of the blended formulations is also rich in higher quantities of Ca and Al and showed possible formation of C-A-S-H and C-(N)-A-S-H together with the development of andradite, a calcium ferrosilicate hydrate phase formed from chemical interaction between FS and co-binders; it indicates that both FS and co-binder participated in the binder gel formation. Furthermore, the nucleating and filling effects of co-binders improved the workability, ultrasonic pulse velocity and mechanical properties; this also densified the structure and lowered the water absorption and permeable porosity of the blended mortars. The compressive strength of blended mortars was above 20 MPa, thus satisfying the strength requirements of building materials according to ASTM C62. The results of this study emphasize the reuse potential of FS with other waste streams in producing eco-friendly AAMs, which can have a wide range of construction applications.

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Series: Journal of building engineering
ISSN: 2352-7102
ISSN-E: 2352-7102
ISSN-L: 2352-7102
Volume: 63
Article number: 105436
DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2022.105436
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
1172 Environmental sciences
212 Civil and construction engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was done as a part of the TOCANEM project funded by Business Finland and various companies. Adeolu Adediran has received funding from Walter Ahlström Foundation and K.H Renlund Foundation for his doctoral research. J. Yliniemi acknowledge financial support from the Academy of Finland (grant # 322786).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 322786
Detailed Information: 322786 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (