University of Oulu

Kuusiniemi, P., Holma, M., Loo, K., & Enqvist, T. (2022). Muography and Geology: Does It Matter Which Continent You Stand on?. Journal of Advanced Instrumentation in Science, 2022.

Muography and geology : does it matter which continent you stand on?

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Author: Kuusiniemi, Pasi1,2,3; Holma, Marko1,2,3,4; Loo, Kai1,2;
Organizations: 1Muon Solutions Oy, Pyhäjärvi, Finland
2Virtual Muography Institute (global)
3Arctic Planetary Science Institute, Finland
4Kerttu Saalasti Institute, University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Andromeda, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-28


The present work has one aim and one aim only: to increase the geological credibility of simulations of muon propagation in real-world rocks. We accomplish this by introducing five different sets of real-world geological systems. Our approach contrasts with the so-called “standard rock” approach, which uses a simplified rock composition as a proxy for geological materials. However, while the conventional approach relies on an assumed average geological composition, it fails to appreciate the complexity of real-world rocks, which indeed are extremely varied in both density and chemical composition. In contrast, each of the five geological systems we have used in our simulations is statistical in nature and represent an average composition of a massive number of similar type of rocks from around the world. The studied real-world geological systems were (1) upper continental crust, (2) bulk continental crust, (3) lower continental crust, (4) oceanic crust, and (5) oceanic upper mantle. Furthermore, water and standard rock were used as references as those are more familiar materials among astroparticle physicists. The simulations were conducted using the standard tools of Geant4 (muon attenuation in materials) and CORSIKA (muon energy in intensity distributions on the ground level), while the parametrized estimates were based on the works of Guan et al. (modified from the Gaisser formula) and Chirkin and Rhode (MMC code). The muon rates were compared to the experimental data of Enqvist et al. extracted in the Pyhasalmi mine, Finland.

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Series: Journal of advanced instrumentation in science
ISSN: 2753-3352
ISSN-E: 2753-3352
ISSN-L: 2753-3352
Article number: JAIS-257
DOI: 10.31526/jais.2022.257
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
116 Chemical sciences
1172 Environmental sciences
Copyright information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Journal of Advanced Instrumentation in Science (JAIS) is an open access journal published by Andromeda Publishing and Education Services. The articles in JAIS are distributed according to the terms of the creative commons license CC-BY 4.0. Under the terms of this license, copyright is retained by the author while use, distribution and reproduction in any medium are permitted provided proper credit is given to original authors and sources.