University of Oulu

Bolstad, I, Alakokkare, A-E, Bramness, JG, et al. The relationships between use of alcohol, tobacco and coffee in adolescence and mood disorders in adulthood. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2022; 146( 6): 594- 603. doi:10.1111/acps.13506

The relationships between use of alcohol, tobacco and coffee in adolescence and mood disorders in adulthood

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Author: Bolstad, Ingeborg1,2; Alakokkare, Anni-Emilia3,4; Bramness, Jørgen G.1,5,6;
Organizations: 1Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Concurrent Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorders, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway
2Faculty of Social and Health Sciences, Inland University of Applied Sciences, Hamar, Norway
3Department of Psychiatry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
4Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
5Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
6Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
7Section for Clinical Addiction Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
8Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
9Department of Psychiatry, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Järvenpää, Finland
10Faculty of Medicine and Health Techonology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
11Department of Psychiatry, Seinäjoki Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, Finland
12Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
13Addiction Psychiatry Unit, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-28


Introduction: Alcohol, tobacco and coffee are commonly used substances and use in adolescence has previously been linked to mood disorders. However, few large prospective studies have investigated adolescent use in relation to mental health outcomes in adulthood. The main aim of this study was to examine the prospective associations between alcohol use, cigarette smoking and coffee consumption at age 16 and subsequent mood disorders up to 33 years of age.

Methods: Data from The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 Study were used and a total of 7660 participants (49.9% male) were included. Associations between alcohol use, cigarette smoking and coffee consumption at age 16 and later diagnoses of major depression and bipolar disorder were examined using multinomial logistic regression analyses.

Results: Mean number of cigarettes/day (OR, 1.23 [95% CI 1.01–1.50]) and mean volume of alcohol consumption (OR, 1.22 [95% CI 1.01–1.47]), but not frequency of excessive drinking, in adolescence were associated with increased risk for subsequent bipolar disorder after adjustment for sex, parental psychiatric disorders, family structure, illicit substance use, and emotional and behavioral problems at age 16. An association between cigarette smoking and major depression attenuated to statistically non-significant when adjusted for emotional and behavioral problems. No associations were observed between adolescent coffee consumption and subsequent mood disorders.

Conclusions: This is the first study to report an association of adolescent cigarette smoking and subsequent bipolar disorder diagnosis providing grounds for further research and pointing to a place for preventive measures among adolescents.

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Series: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica
ISSN: 0001-690X
ISSN-E: 1600-0447
ISSN-L: 0001-690X
Volume: 146
Issue: 6
Pages: 594 - 603
DOI: 10.1111/acps.13506
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3124 Neurology and psychiatry
Funding: Academy of Finland; Emil Aaltonen Foundation; EU QLG1-CT-2000-01643(EUROBLCS); Juho Vainion Säätiö;NorFA; Päivikki ja Sakari Sohlbergin Säätiö; USA/NIH 2000 G DF682; Yrjö Jahnssonin Säätiö
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivsLicense, which permits use and distribution in anymedium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.