University of Oulu

Qas Elias BB, Al-Hadi AA, Akkaraekthalin P, Soh PJ. A Dimension Estimation Method for Rigid and Flexible Planar Antennas Based on Characteristic Mode Analysis. Electronics. 2022; 11(21):3585.

A dimension estimation method for rigid and flexible planar antennas based on characteristic mode analysis

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Author: Qas Elias, Bashar Bahaa1,2; Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah1; Akkaraekthalin, Prayoot3;
Organizations: 1Advanced Communication Engineering (ACE) CoE, Faculty of Electronic Engineering Technology, Pauh Putra Campus, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Arau 02600, Perlis, Malaysia
2Department of Communications Technology Engineering, College of Information Technology, Imam Ja’afar Al-Sadiq University, Baghdad 10052, Iraq
3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB), 1518 Pracharat 1 Rd., Wongsawang, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800, Thailand
4Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-12-08


An empirical method for simplified dimension estimation of patch antennas is proposed in this work based on characteristic mode analysis (CMA). This method involves generating formulae to calculate substrate-independent antenna patch widths produced from the antenna’s characteristic angle. This enables the definition of a relationship between the characteristic angle and the natural resonant frequency of an antenna structure, bridging the changes of resonant frequencies contributed by possible variation in substrate properties. From here, the end ‘calibrated’ results can be used to generate specific formulae for each antenna to determine the width of the patch at different operating frequencies, making it time- and resource-efficient. This method was validated using conventional and slotted antennas designed using different substrates, both rigid (RO4003C, Rogers RT/Duroid 5880) and conventional (felt, denim fabric). Measurement results obtained were in satisfactory agreement with simulated results, even without considering the substrates and excitations. Finally, this method was also applied in designing dual-band antennas using flexible materials for wearable applications, indicating good agreement with experimental results.

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Series: Electronics
ISSN: 2079-9292
ISSN-E: 2079-9292
ISSN-L: 2079-9292
Volume: 11
Issue: 21
Article number: 3585
DOI: 10.3390/electronics11213585
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work has been funded in part by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (grant no: FRGS/1/2020/TK0/UNIMAP/02/19) from the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education, in part by the National Science, Research and Innovation Fund (NSRF), the King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (contract no: KMUTNB-FF-66-10), in part by the Academy of Finland 6G Flagship (grant no: 318927), and in part by the Academy of Finland’s LiBERATE project (grant no: 346949).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
346949 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (