University of Oulu

Ponomar, V., Adesanya, E., Ohenoja, K., & Illikainen, M. (2022). High-temperature performance of slag-based Fe-rich alkali-activated materials. Cement and Concrete Research, 161, 106960.

High-temperature performance of slag-based Fe-rich alkali-activated materials

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Author: Ponomar, Vitalii1; Adesanya, Elijah1; Ohenoja, Katja1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 9.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-12-08


Fe-rich alkali-activated materials have been studied for their suitability for high-temperature application up to 1000 °C. The evolution of compressive strength, mineral composition and microstructure was monitored using FT-IR, XRD, TGA and SEM-WDS for the pastes and mortars obtained by alkali activation of fayalite and wüstite non-ferrous slags. For both binders, the changes in compressive strength revealed moderate fluctuations below 400 °C due to water evaporation, a sharp drop in strength to 25 MPa at 600 °C due to collapse of the original gel structure, and reinforcement of the strength above 600 °C due to sintering densification and formation of gehlenite-åkermanite or diopside-albite ceramic. An extensive reaction of the quartz aggregate with a sodium-rich binder resulted in the formation of an iron silicate phase that contributed to a further increase in the strength up to 70 MPa by increasing both temperature and time of heating.

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Series: Cement and concrete research
ISSN: 0008-8846
ISSN-E: 1873-3948
ISSN-L: 0008-8846
Volume: 161
Article number: 106960
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2022.106960
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This work was done under the auspices of the TOCANEM (Towards Carbon Neutral Metals) project which was funded by Business Finland and the following Finnish companies: Boliden Harjavalta Oy, Boliden Kokkola Oy, Fortum Waste Solutions Oy, Freeport Cobalt Oy, Kivisampo Oy, Outokumpu Stainless Oy, Outotec (Finland) Oy, Owatec Group Oy, Sapotech Oy, Metsä Group Oy, Ovako Imatra Oy, and SSAB Europe Oy. The authors would like to thank Mr. Jarno Karvonen, Ms. Elisa Wirkkala and Mr. Jani Österlund for their help in analysing the materials. The authors are grateful to Marcin Selent and Marko Moilanen from the Centre for Materials Analysis for their assistance in recording XRD patterns and SEM images.
Dataset Reference: Supplementary data to this article can be found online at
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (