University of Oulu

Nguyen, A., Ngo, H.N., Hong, Y. et al. Ethical principles for artificial intelligence in education. Educ Inf Technol 28, 4221–4241 (2023).

Ethical principles for artificial intelligence in education

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Author: Nguyen, Andy1; Ngo, Ha Ngan2; Hong, Yvonne3;
Organizations: 1Learning & Educational Technology Research Unit (LET), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Faculty of Education, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
3School of Information Management, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
4Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, VNU University of Languages and International Studies, Hanoi, Vietnam
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-12-14


The advancement of artificial intelligence in education (AIED) has the potential to transform the educational landscape and influence the role of all involved stakeholders. In recent years, the applications of AIED have been gradually adopted to progress our understanding of students’ learning and enhance learning performance and experience. However, the adoption of AIED has led to increasing ethical risks and concerns regarding several aspects such as personal data and learner autonomy. Despite the recent announcement of guidelines for ethical and trustworthy AIED, the debate revolves around the key principles underpinning ethical AIED. This paper aims to explore whether there is a global consensus on ethical AIED by mapping and analyzing international organizations’ current policies and guidelines. In this paper, we first introduce the opportunities offered by AI in education and potential ethical issues. Then, thematic analysis was conducted to conceptualize and establish a set of ethical principles by examining and synthesizing relevant ethical policies and guidelines for AIED. We discuss each principle and associated implications for relevant educational stakeholders, including students, teachers, technology developers, policymakers, and institutional decision-makers. The proposed set of ethical principles is expected to serve as a framework to inform and guide educational stakeholders in the development and deployment of ethical and trustworthy AIED as well as catalyze future development of related impact studies in the field.

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Series: Education and information technologies
ISSN: 1360-2357
ISSN-E: 1573-7608
ISSN-L: 1360-2357
Volume: 28
Issue: 4
Pages: 4221 - 4241
DOI: 10.1007/s10639-022-11316-w
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. This work was funded in part by Finnish Academy project no. 350249.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 350249
Detailed Information: 350249 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit