University of Oulu

Tiwari, K., Kyrki, V., Cheung, A. et al. DeFINE: Delayed feedback-based immersive navigation environment for studying goal-directed human navigation. Behav Res 53, 2668–2688 (2021).

DeFINE : delayed feedback-based immersive navigation environment for studying goal-directed human navigation

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Author: Kshitij Tiwari1,2; Kyrki, Ville1; Cheung, Allen3;
Organizations: 1Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
2Center of Ubiquitous Computing, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
4School of Psychology and Counselling, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Australia
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-12-22


With the advent of consumer-grade products for presenting an immersive virtual environment (VE), there is a growing interest in utilizing VEs for testing human navigation behavior. However, preparing a VE still requires a high level of technical expertise in computer graphics and virtual reality, posing a significant hurdle to embracing the emerging technology. To address this issue, this paper presents Delayed Feedback-based Immersive Navigation Environment (DeFINE), a framework that allows for easy creation and administration of navigation tasks within customizable VEs via intuitive graphical user interfaces and simple settings files. Importantly, DeFINE has a built-in capability to provide performance feedback to participants during an experiment, a feature that is critically missing in other similar frameworks. To show the usability of DeFINE from both experimentalists’ and participants’ perspectives, a demonstration was made in which participants navigated to a hidden goal location with feedback that differentially weighted speed and accuracy of their responses. In addition, the participants evaluated DeFINE in terms of its ease of use, required workload, and proneness to induce cybersickness. The demonstration exemplified typical experimental manipulations DeFINE accommodates and what types of data it can collect for characterizing participants’ task performance. With its out-of-the-box functionality and potential customizability due to open-source licensing, DeFINE makes VEs more accessible to many researchers.

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Series: Behavior research methods
ISSN: 1554-351X
ISSN-E: 1554-3528
ISSN-L: 1554-351X
Volume: 53
Pages: 2668 - 2688
DOI: 10.3758/s13428-021-01586-6
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 515 Psychology
Copyright information: © The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2021. This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at: