University of Oulu

Sliz, R., Valikangas, J., Silva Santos, H., Vilmi, P., Rieppo, L., Hu, T., Lassi, U., & Fabritius, T. (2022). Suitable cathode nmp replacement for efficient sustainable printed li-ion batteries. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 5(4), 4047–4058.

Suitable cathode NMP replacement for efficient sustainable printed Li-Ion batteries

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Author: Sliz, Rafal1; Välikangas, Juho2; Santos, Hellen Silva3;
Organizations: 1Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Unit, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
3Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
4Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 11.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Chemical Society, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-12-27


N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is the most common solvent for manufacturing cathode electrodes in the battery industry; however, it is becoming restricted in several countries due to its negative environmental impact. Taking into account that ∼99% of the solvent used during electrode fabrication is recovered, dimethylformamide (DMF) is a considerable candidate to replace NMP. The lower boiling point and higher ignition temperature of DMF lead to a significant reduction in the energy consumption needed for drying the electrodes and improve the safety of the production process. Additionally, the lower surface tension and viscosity of DMF enable improved current collector wetting and higher concentrations of the solid material in the cathode slurry. To verify the suitability of DMF as a replacement for NMP, we utilized screen printing, a fabrication method that provides roll-to-roll compatibility while allowing controlled deposition and creation of sophisticated patterns. The battery systems utilized NMC (LiNixMnyCozO2) chemistry in two configurations: NMC523 and NMC88. The first, well-established NCM523, was used as a reference, while NMC88 was used to demonstrate the potential of the proposed method with high-capacity materials. The cathodes were used to create coin and pouch cell batteries that were cycled 1000 times. The achieved results indicate that DMF can successfully replace NMP in the NMC cathode fabrication process without compromising battery performance. Specifically, both the NMP blade-coated and DMF screen-printed batteries retained 87 and 90% of their capacity after 1000 (1C/1C) cycles for NMC523 and NMC88, respectively. The modeling results of the drying process indicate that utilizing a low-boiling-point solvent (DMF) instead of NMP can reduce the drying energy consumption fourfold, resulting in a more environmentally friendly battery production process.

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Series: ACS applied energy materials
ISSN: 2574-0962
ISSN-E: 2574-0962
ISSN-L: 2574-0962
Volume: 5
Issue: 4
Pages: 4047 - 4058
DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.1c02923
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This research was funded by the EU/Interreg Nord─Interregional Cooperation Project (Project SolBat grant no. 20202885). The authors also express their gratitude for the financial support received from the Academy of Finland’s FIRI funding (grant no. 320017).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 320017
Detailed Information: 320017 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.