University of Oulu

Srivastava, S., Snellings, R., Nielsen, P., & Cool, P. (2022). Accelerated carbonation of ferrous and non-ferrous slags to produce clinker-free carbonate-bonded blocks: Synergetic reduction in environmental leaching. Construction and Building Materials, 348, 128630.

Accelerated carbonation of ferrous and non-ferrous slags to produce clinker-free carbonate-bonded blocks : synergetic reduction in environmental leaching

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Author: Srivastava, Sumit1,2,3; Snellings, Ruben1; Nielsen, Peter1;
Organizations: 1Sustainable Materials, Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium
2Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
3Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-12-27


Clinker-free, carbonate-bonded monoliths are prepared by accelerated carbonation for immobilization of hazardous elements present in: a stainless-steel slag, two copper slags, and one lead slag. In addition to the studies on individual slags, mixes of copper slags and lead slags with 33 % and 66 % replacements of stainless-steel slag are also studied. Combinations of two temperatures (30 and 60 °C) and three CO2-pressures (1, 5, and 10 barg) are studied. Among the non-ferrous slags carbonated individually, lead slag carbonated at 10 barg exhibited carbonate-cementation. The carbonate-bonded monoliths containing stainless-steel slag exhibited high compressive strengths, individually or as in its mixes with other slags. In stainless-steel slag, while its individual carbonation also showed a decrease in Cr-leaching, the Cr-leaching from its mixes with non-ferrous slags are disproportionately lower: possible chemical synergy of stainless-steel slag with sulfidic non-ferrous slags is discussed. For lead slag individually, carbonation significantly decreases Pb-leaching; while Co, Zn, and Mn leaching first increase and then decrease with an increase in CO2-pressure. In mixes of lead slag with stainless-steel slag, Pb, Co, Zn, and Mn leaching are significantly decreased. Temperature does not have a significant influence on the product properties. Copper slag remained relatively insensitive towards carbonation. Comparisons are made with the Flemish legislative limits.

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Series: Construction & building materials
ISSN: 0950-0618
ISSN-E: 1879-0526
ISSN-L: 0950-0618
Volume: 348
Article number: 128630
DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.128630
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors wish to acknowledge the Province of Antwerp for research funding (Research project no. 33466).
Copyright information: © 2022 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CC BY license (