University of Oulu

Mitas, B., Visuri, VV. & Schenk, J. Mathematical Modeling of the Ejected Droplet Size Distribution in the Vicinity of a Gas–Liquid Impingement Zone. Metall Mater Trans B 53, 3083–3094 (2022).

Mathematical Modeling of the Ejected Droplet Size Distribution in the Vicinity of a Gas–Liquid Impingement Zone

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Author: Mitas, Bernhard1,2; Visuri, Ville-Valtteri3; Schenk, Johannes1,2
Organizations: 1Chair of Ferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700, Leoben, Austria
2K1-MET GmbH, Stahlstraße 14, 4020, Linz, Austria
3Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-12-28


The controlled splashing of metal droplets plays a decisive role in the kinetics of the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) process. In this work, a mathematical model was developed for predicting the size distribution of spherical droplets ejected at an impingement zone. Harmonic oscillators are used to describe the ejection sites, and the upper limit for the droplet population is calculated through a force balance. The model was validated against literature data from high-temperature crucible experiments involving different supply pressures and lance heights as well as both single-hole and multihole lances. The predicted size distribution of the metal droplets was found to be in good agreement with the droplet size distributions measured from outside the crucible. The model was also applied for predicting the size distribution parameters of the Rosin–Rammler–Sperling (RRS) size distribution function. The model developed is computationally light and is suitable to be used as a part of offline and online simulation tools for the BOF process.

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Series: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, Process metallurgy and materials processing science
ISSN: 1073-5615
ISSN-E: 1543-1916
ISSN-L: 1073-5615
Volume: 53
Issue: 5
Pages: 3083 - 3094
DOI: 10.1007/s11663-022-02588-1
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
111 Mathematics
Funding: The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding support of K1-MET GmbH, metallurgical competence center. The research program of the K1-MET competence center is supported by COMET (Competence Center for Excellent Technologies), the Austrian program for competence centers. COMET is funded by the Federal Ministry for Climate Action, Environment, Energy, Mobility, Innovation and Technology, the Federal Ministry for Digital and Economic Affairs, the Federal States of Upper Austria, Tyrol, and Styria as well as the Styrian Business Promotion Agency (SFG) and the Standortagentur Tyrol. Furthermore, Upper Austrian Research continuously supports K1-MET. Besides the public funding from COMET, the research projects are partially financed by participating scientific partners and industrial partners. Professor Timo Fabritius is acknowledged for allowing Mr. Mitas to conduct part of the research at the University of Oulu. The work by Dr. Visuri was conducted within the framework of the FFS project funded by Business Finland. Open access funding provided by Montanuniversität Leoben.
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