University of Oulu

Heikkala, E., Hagnäs, M., Jokelainen, J., Karppinen, J., Ferreira, P., Ferreira, M. L., & Mikkola, I. (2022). Association of musculoskeletal pain with the achievement of treatment targets for type 2 diabetes among primary care patients. Primary Care Diabetes, 16(4), 531–536.

Association of musculoskeletal pain with the achievement of treatment targets for type 2 diabetes among primary care patients

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Author: Heikkala, Eveliina1,2,3; Hagnäs, Maria1,2,3; Jokelainen, Jari3;
Organizations: 1Rovaniemi Health Center, Rovaniemi, Finland
2Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
3Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Rehabilitation Services of South Karelia Social and Health Care District, Lappeenranta, Finland
5School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
6Faculty of Medicine and Health, Kolling Institute, School of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-12-30


Aims: To assess the association of diagnosed musculoskeletal (MS) pain (low back, neck, shoulder, and knee pain; and the number of pain sites) with the achievement of targets for glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) among primary care patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods: The cross-sectional study population consisted of 3478 patients with a registry-based T2D diagnosis and available registry-based data on MS pain diagnoses, covariates, and outcomes between 2016 and 2019. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the study aims.

Results: Overall, 22% had at least one of the four types of MS pain, and 73%, 57%, and 51% achieved the treatment targets of HbA1c, LDL, and SBP, respectively. T2D patients with or without MS pain did not differ in their achievement of T2D treatment goals. Of pain locations, low back pain was associated with higher rates of achievement of the LDL target (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01–1.65), but the association was attenuated in the adjusted model.

Conclusions: MS pain was relatively prevalent among primary care patients with T2D, but did not influence the achievement of T2D treatment goals.

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Series: Primary care diabetes
ISSN: 1751-9918
ISSN-E: 1878-0210
ISSN-L: 1751-9918
Volume: 16
Issue: 4
Pages: 531 - 536
DOI: 10.1016/j.pcd.2022.04.006
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Dataset Reference: Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in the online version at doi:10.1016/j.pcd.2022.04.006.
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (