University of Oulu

Sorsa A, Ruusunen M, Santa-aho S, Vippola M. Sub-Surface Analysis of Grinding Burns with Barkhausen Noise Measurements. Materials. 2023; 16(1):159.

Sub-surface analysis of grinding burns with Barkhausen noise measurements

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Author: Sorsa, Aki1; Ruusunen, Mika1; Santa-aho, Suvi2;
Organizations: 1Environmental and Chemical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Tampere University, P.O. Box 589, FI-33014 Tampere, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-01-04


Barkhausen noise (BN) measurements are commonly used for surface characterisation. However, often there is also a need to verify the sub-surface region because detrimental tensile stresses may be present after different manufacturing steps. Especially in a grinding burn, the surface stress may be compressive, but it changes quickly into tensile stress below the surface. The aim of this study was to find out whether regular surface-sensitive BN measurement is also sensitive to the stresses below the surface caused by grinding burns. More specifically, the aim was to study the relationship between BN features and sub-surface stresses and to identify a model that estimates sub-surface stresses. Real samples were collected from an actual process. The samples were cylindrical samples manufactured from commercial alloyed AISI/SAE L6 steel that was through-hardened prior to grinding. Barkhausen noise measurements were carried out for 42 grinding burn locations followed by X-ray diffraction-based residual stress surface measurements and residual stress depth profiles. Depth information was obtained through step-by-step electrolytic removal of thin layers. The stress profiles were pre-processed through interpolation and averaged stress was calculated as a function of depth below the surface. Correlation analysis was carried out to evaluate the relationships between BN features and stress at different depths and among BN features. The main outcome of the analysis was that BN measurement is dominated by the sub-surface tensile stresses rather than the compressive stress at the surface. It was also noticed that BN features form two groups, corresponding to average Barkhausen activity and magnetising field strength leading to maximum Barkhausen activity. Models for stress at different steps were identified systematically. The performance of the models for sub-surface stresses was reasonable with R2 values of around 0.85 and root mean squared error (RMSE) values of around 95 MPa. Based on the results, it is concluded that BN measurement provides information about sub-surface stresses and that stress can be evaluated through straightforward modelling, allowing fast detection of grinding burns.

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Series: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
ISSN-E: 1996-1944
ISSN-L: 1996-1944
Volume: 16
Issue: 1
Pages: 159 -
DOI: 10.3390/ma16010159
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: The data acquisition of this research was funded by Business Finland Co-Innovation project entitled “Intelligent manufacturing ecosystem (ÄVE)” grant number 3644/31/2018.
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (