University of Oulu

I. -s. Kim, M. Bennis and J. Choi, "Cell-Free mmWave Massive MIMO Systems With Low-Capacity Fronthaul Links and Low-Resolution ADC/DACs," in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 71, no. 10, pp. 10512-10526, Oct. 2022, doi: 10.1109/TVT.2022.3184172

Cell-free mmWave massive MIMO systems with low-capacity fronthaul lnks and low-resolution ADC/DACs

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Author: Kim, In-soo1; Bennis, Mehdi2; Choi, Junil1
Organizations: 1School of Electrical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 34141, South Korea
2Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-01-05


In this paper, we consider the uplink channel estimation phase and downlink data transmission phase of cell-free millimeter wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with low-capacity fronthaul links and low-resolution analog-to-digital converters/digital-to-analog converters (ADC/DACs). In cell-free massive MIMO, a control unit dictates the baseband processing at a geographical scale, while the base stations communicate with the control unit through fronthaul links. Unlike most of previous works in cell-free massive MIMO with finite-capacity fronthaul links, we consider the general case where the fronthaul capacity and ADC/DAC resolution are not necessarily the same. In particular, the fronthaul compression and ADC/DAC quantization occur independently where each one is modeled based on the information theoretic argument and additive quantization noise model (AQNM). Then, we address the codebook design problem that aims to minimize the channel estimation error for the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) and colored compression noise cases. Also, we propose an alternating optimization (AO) method to tackle the max-min fairness problem. In essence, the AO method alternates between two subproblems that correspond to the power allocation and codebook design problems. The AO method proposed for the zero-forcing (ZF) precoder is guaranteed to converge, whereas the one for the maximum ratio transmission (MRT) precoder has no such guarantee. Finally, the performance of the proposed schemes is evaluated by the simulation results in terms of both energy and spectral efficiency. The numerical results show that the proposed scheme for the ZF precoder yields spectral and energy efficiency 28% and 15% higher than that of the best baseline.

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Series: IEEE transactions on vehicular technology
ISSN: 0018-9545
ISSN-E: 1939-9359
ISSN-L: 0018-9545
Volume: 71
Issue: 10
Pages: 10512 - 10526
DOI: 10.1109/tvt.2022.3184172
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea , through the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support Program under Grant IITP-2020-0-01787, supervised by the IITP (Institute of Information and Communications Technology Planning and Evaluation), in part by the Institute of Information and Communications Technology Planning and Evaluation (IITP) funded by the Korea Government (MSIT) under Grant 2021-000269, for the Development of sub-THz band wireless transmission and access core technology for 6G Tbps data rate, and in part by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education under Grant 2021R1A6A3A13045215.
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