University of Oulu

M. F. Haider, F. You, S. He, T. Rahkonen and J. P. Aikio, "Predistortion-Based Linearization for 5G and Beyond Millimeter-Wave Transceiver Systems: A Comprehensive Survey," in IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 2029-2072, Fourthquarter 2022, doi: 10.1109/COMST.2022.3199884

Predistortion-based linearization for 5G and beyond millimeter-wave transceiver systems : a comprehensive survey

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Author: Haider, Muhammad Furqan1,2; You, Fei2; He, Songbai2;
Organizations: 1Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2School of Electronic Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-01-05


The next-generation (5G/6G) wireless communication aims to leapfrog the currently occupied sub-6 GHz spectrum to the wideband millimeter-wave (MMW) spectrum. However, MMW spectrums with high-order modulation schemes drive the power amplifier (PA) at significant back-off, causing severe nonlinear distortions, thus deteriorating the transceiver’s (TRXs) modulation process. Typically, the TRX efficacy is quantified with standardized linearization matrices, which take advantage of different predistortion (PD) schemes to handle deep compression of the PA. In this regard, TRX baseband signals are mostly linearized in the digital domain, where digitally controlled linearization needs higher sampling rates due to increasing MMW bandwidths to compensate for intermodulation (IMD) products, resulting in increased system cost and power consumption. Alternately, the digitally controlled analog-based linearization, i.e., the hybridization of digital predistortion (DPD) and analog predistortion (APD), is highly productive and cost-effective for fulfilling the linearized energy-efficient design vision of MMW networks. Therefore, this paper puts an extensive spotlight on the progress in PD-based linearization for 5G and beyond communications. It first provides background information on the advancements of PD schemes through recent surveys, then classifies the general roadmap of PD waveform processing across the TRX system models as preliminary. After this, we present three prominent PD architectures and their design approaches with intrinsic performance metrics. Finally, we explore four case studies encompassing PD operation under certain nonlinear constraints of different communication schemes. We examine the suitability of PD-based linearization solutions, both existing and proposed till the first quarter of 2022, and identify the potential prospects in this domain.

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Series: IEEE communications surveys and tutorials
ISSN: 1553-877X
ISSN-E: 2373-745X
ISSN-L: 1553-877X
Volume: 24
Issue: 4
Pages: 2029 - 2072
DOI: 10.1109/COMST.2022.3199884
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the University of Oulu through the Finnish Academy Research Project MIMEPA under Grant 323779, and in part by the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China through the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grant 2018YFB1802004.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 323779
Detailed Information: 323779 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see