University of Oulu

Jonne Ukkola, Feby W. Pratiwi, Santeri Kankaanpää, Seyedamirhosein Abdorahimzadeh, Mohammad KarzarJeddi, Prateek Singh, Artem Zhyvolozhnyi, Olha Makieieva, Sirja Viitala, Anatoliy Samoylenko, Hely Häggman, Seppo J. Vainio, Caglar Elbuken, Henrikki Liimatainen, Enrichment of bovine milk-derived extracellular vesicles using surface-functionalized cellulose nanofibers, Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 297, 2022, 120069, ISSN 0144-8617,

Enrichment of bovine milk-derived extracellular vesicles using surface-functionalized cellulose nanofibers

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Author: Ukkola, Jonne1; Pratiwi, Feby W.2; Kankaanpää, Santeri3;
Organizations: 1Fiber and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P. O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Disease Networks Research Unit, Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, P. O. Box 5000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
3Natural Resources Institute Finland, Myllytie 1, 31600 Jokioinen, Finland
4Micro/nanofluidics and Biosensor Research Group, University of Oulu, P. O. Box 5400, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
5Ecology and Genetics, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-01-19


The isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from milk, a complex mixture of colloidal structures having a comparable size to EVs, is challenging. Although ultracentrifugation (UC) has been widely used for EV isolation, this has significant limitations, including a long processing time at high g-force conditions and large sample volume requirements. We introduced a new approach based on nature nanoentities cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) and short time and low g-force centrifugation to isolate EVs from various milk fractions. The flexible and entangled network of CNFs forms nanoporous, which entraps the EVs. Further, positively charged CNFs interact with anionic EVs through an electrostatic attraction, promoting their isolation with efficiency comparable with UC. The functionality and toxicity of isolated milk EVs were tested in Caco2 cells. Overall, the newly developed approach provides straightforward isolation and biocompatibility and preserves the natural properties of the isolated EVs, enabling further applications.

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Series: Carbohydrate polymers
ISSN: 0144-8617
ISSN-E: 1879-1344
ISSN-L: 0144-8617
Volume: 297
Article number: 120069
DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2022.120069
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 221 Nanotechnology
1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
Funding: This research was supported by the Academy of Finland, Finland projects NanoBiomass (307537) and ACNF (325276), and the Kvantum Institute project BioEVEngine (University of Oulu), Finland.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 325276
Detailed Information: 325276 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (