University of Oulu

Adeolu Adediran, Juho Yliniemi, Samira Moukannaa, D.D. Ramteke, Priyadharshini Perumal, Mirja Illikainen, Enhancing the thermal stability of alkali-activated Fe-rich fayalite slag-based mortars by incorporating ladle and blast furnace slags: Physical, mechanical and structural changes, Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 166, 2023, 107098, ISSN 0008-8846,

Enhancing the thermal stability of alkali-activated Fe-rich fayalite slag-based mortars by incorporating ladle and blast furnace slags : physical, mechanical and structural changes

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Author: Adediran, Adeolu1; Yliniemi, Juho1; Moukannaa, Samira1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran Katu 1, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-01-23


A proper and detailed understanding of the thermal stability of Fe-rich fayalite slag-based alkali-activated materials (AAMs) is important due to their potential use in refractory and fire-resistant applications. Here, fayalite slag (FS) was used as the main precursor for AAMs. The effects of incorporating ladle slag (LS) or blast furnace slag (BFS) and different temperature exposures up to 1000 °C were investigated through visual observation, compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), thermal conductivity, x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope coupled with electron probe microanalyzer (SEM-EPMA). The experimental results indicated that the incorporation of LS or BFS as additional calcium and aluminum sources positively affected the high-temperature behavior of blended mortars, which exhibited a reduction in voids, cracks, and thermal shrinkage while having higher residual strength and thermal stability than solely FS-based AAMs. This was mainly due to the differences in mineralogical transformation and the phases formed. Interestingly, the joint effect of elevated temperature exposure and the addition of LS or BFS enhanced the formation of more stable crystalline phases and densified the structure of blended mortars at 1000 °C.

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Series: Cement and concrete research
ISSN: 0008-8846
ISSN-E: 1873-3948
ISSN-L: 0008-8846
Volume: 166
Article number: 107098
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2023.107098
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1172 Environmental sciences
212 Civil and construction engineering
216 Materials engineering
218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This work was done as a part of the TOCANEM project funded by Business Finland and various companies. Adeolu Adediran has received funding from the Walter Ahlström foundation, Renlund foundation, and Auramo foundation for his doctoral research. J. Yliniemi acknowledges financial support from the Academy of Finland (grant # 322786). The authors gratefully acknowledge the Centre for Material Analysis, University of Oulu, Finland, for assistance with the data analysis.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 322786
Detailed Information: 322786 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (