University of Oulu

Alatarvas, R., Strand, K., Hyttinen, O., & Kotilainen, A. (2022). Sedimentary facies and clay mineralogy of the late pleistocene landsort deep sediments, baltic sea—Implications for the baltic ice lake development. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 54(1), 624–639.

Sedimentary facies and clay mineralogy of the late Pleistocene Landsort Deep sediments, Baltic Sea : implications for the Baltic Ice Lake development

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Author: Alatarvas, Raisa1; Strand, Kari1; Hyttinen, Outi2;
Organizations: 1Oulu Mining School, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Sitowise, Tampere, Finland
3Environmental Solutions, Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Informa, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-01-25


The Landsort Deep is the deepest part of the Baltic Sea and contains an excellent high-resolution late Pleistocene sediment record suitable to study the retreat history of the southern margin of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet and the development of the ice-marginal Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) from ~13.5 to 10.5 ka BP. The studied cores are from the lithostratigraphic Units V and VI of Hole M0063C that were recovered during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 347. The subdivision and interpretation of the studied BIL record are based on the identification of seven distinct sedimentary facies, grain size characteristics, detrital clay minerals, water and carbon content, and physical properties. The ice-rafted debris (IRD) in the lowermost part of Unit VI indicates a proximal glaciolacustrine environment. The onset of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet deglaciation during the warm Bølling/Allerød interstadial caused a rise of the proglacial lake water level and the transition from ice-proximal (IRD-containing sediments) to ice-distal varved sediments (rhythmically laminated silty clays) detected within the middle part of Unit VI. This depositional unit of constant sedimentation was followed by the first drainage event of the BIL, which led to the deposition of a distinct clay-rich interval representing erosion and redeposition of the emerged lake bottom sediments. The reduced grain size of the overlying sediments is associated to the onset of cooler climate conditions and a possible ice sheet readvance during the Younger Dryas that resulted in a decrease of meltwater release and sediment availability. The higher sand content and kaolinite peak are associated to a rapid ice retreat and the release of abundant sediment laden meltwater plumes at the end of the Younger Dryas. The final drainage of the BIL enabled the erosion of coastal clay sediments, and the termination of the ice lake stage led to enhanced clay sedimentation to the Landsort Deep.

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Series: Arctic, Antarctic, and alpine research
ISSN: 1523-0430
ISSN-E: 1938-4246
ISSN-L: 1523-0430
Volume: 54
Issue: 1
Pages: 624 - 639
DOI: 10.1080/15230430.2022.2155352
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
Funding: This work was partially supported by the Finnish Cultural Foundation, the Academy of Finland, and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (CISU project). This research is part of the University of Oulu funded project Loss of Ice in the Arctic System (LIAS): Geological perspective of global environmental change.
Copyright information: © 2022 The Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.