University of Oulu

Sarfraz, S., Mäntynen, P.-H., Laurila, M., Rossi, S., Leikola, J., Kaakinen, M., Suojanen, J., & Reunanen, J. (2022). Comparison of titanium and peek medical plastic implant materials for their bacterial biofilm formation properties. Polymers, 14(18), 3862.

Comparison of titanium and PEEK Medical plastic implant materials for their bacterial biofilm formation properties

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Author: Sarfraz, Sonia1; Mäntynen, Pilvi-Helinä2; Laurila, Marisa2;
Organizations: 1Biocenter Oulu & Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Päijät-Häme Joint Authority for Health and Wellbeing, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lahti Central Hospital, 15850 Lahti, Finland
3Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, 00029 Helsinki, Finland
4Oulu Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, 90220 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-01-26


This study investigated two of the most commonly used CAD–CAM materials for patient-specific reconstruction in craniomaxillofacial surgery. The aim of this study was to access the biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli on titanium and PEEK medical implant materials. Two titanium specimens (titanium grade 2 tooled with a Planmeca CAD–CAM milling device and titanium grade 5 tooled with a computer-aided design direct metal laser sintering device (CAD-DMLS)) and one PEEK specimen tooled with a Planmeca CAD–CAM milling device were studied. Bacterial adhesion on implants was evaluated in two groups (saliva-treated group and non-saliva-treated group) to imitate intraoral and extraoral surgical routes for implant placement. The PEEK medical implant material showed higher bacterial adhesion by S. aureus, S. mutans, and E. coli than titanium grade 2 and titanium grade 5, whereas E. faecalis showed higher adhesion to titanium as compared to PEEK. Saliva contamination of implants also effected bacterial attachment. Salivary coating enhanced biofilm formation by S. aureus, S. mutans, and E. faecalis. In conclusion, our findings imply that regardless of the implant material type or tooling techniques used, salivary coating plays a vital role in bacterial adhesion. In addition, the majority of the bacterial strains showed higher adhesion to PEEK than titanium.

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Series: Polymers
ISSN: 2073-4360
ISSN-E: 2073-4360
ISSN-L: 2073-4360
Volume: 14
Issue: 18
Article number: 3862
DOI: 10.3390/polym14183862
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology
313 Dentistry
Funding: This study was funded by the Academy of Finland, project number 243032491 (J.R.), the Helsinki University Hospital Specific Catchment Area Research Funds, grant number 200230071 (J.S.), and the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation Research Grant (J.S.). Planmeca Ltd. provided titanium blocks free of charge.
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (