Owens, M.J., Barnard, L.A., Pope, B.J.S. et al. Solar Energetic-Particle Ground-Level Enhancements and the Solar Cycle. Sol Phys 297, 105 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-022-02037-x
Solar energetic-particle ground-level enhancements and the solar cycle
|Author:||Owens, Mathew J.1; Barnard, Luke A.1; Pope, Benjamin J. S.2;|
1Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 243, Reading, RG6 6BB, UK
2School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia
3Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit and Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, 90014, Oulu, Finland
4Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.3 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe202301276197
|Publish Date:|| 2023-01-27
Severe geomagnetic storms appear to be ordered by the solar cycle in a number of ways. They occur more frequently close to solar maximum and the declining phase, are more common in larger solar cycles, and show different patterns of occurrence in odd- and even-numbered solar cycles. Our knowledge of the most extreme space-weather events, however, comes from spikes in cosmogenic-isotope (14C, 10Be, and 36Cl) records that are attributed to significantly larger solar energetic-particle (SEP) events than have been observed during the space age. Despite both storms and SEPs being driven by solar-eruptive phenomena, the event-by-event correspondence between extreme storms and extreme SEPs is low. Thus, it should not be assumed a priori that the solar-cycle patterns found for storms also hold for SEPs and the cosmogenic-isotope events. In this study, we investigate the solar-cycle trends in the timing and magnitude of the 67 SEP ground-level enhancements (GLEs) recorded by neutron monitors since the mid-1950s. Using a number of models of GLE-occurrence probability, we show that GLEs are around a factor of four more likely around solar maximum than around solar minimum, and that they preferentially occur earlier in even-numbered solar cycles than in odd-numbered cycles. There are insufficient data to conclusively determine whether larger solar cycles produce more GLEs. Implications for putative space-weather events in the cosmogenic-isotope records are discussed. We find that GLEs tend to cluster within a few tens of days, likely due to particularly productive individual active regions, and with approximately 11-year separations, owing to the solar-cycle ordering. However, these timescales would not explain any cosmogenic-isotope spikes requiring multiple extreme SEP events over consecutive years.
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
115 Astronomy and space science
This work was part-funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) grant numbers ST/R000921/1 and ST/V000497/1, and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) grant numbers NE/S010033/1 and NE/P016928/1. I.U. acknowledges the Academy of Finland (projects ESPERA No. 321882). E.A. acknowledges support from the Academy of Finland (Postdoctoral Researcher Grant 322455), and the Finnish Centre of Excellence in Research of Sustainable Space (Academy of Finland grant number 312390).
|Academy of Finland Grant Number:||
321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Sunspot data are provided by the Royal Observatory of Belgium SILSO and available from www.sidc.be/silso/DATA/SN_m_tot_V2.0.csv. The GLE database can be accessed here: https://gle.oulu.fi/. The aaH-geomagnetic index data are available from www.swsc-journal.org/articles/swsc/olm/2018/01/swsc180022/swsc180022-2-olm.txt.
All analysis and visualisation code is packaged with all required OMNI data here: https://github.com/University-of-Reading-Space-Science/ExtremeEvents.
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