University of Oulu

Väisänen, E., Kuisma, I., Mäkinen, M., Ilonen, J., Veijola, R., Toppari, J., Hedman, K., & Söderlund-Venermo, M. (2022). Torque teno virus primary infection kinetics in early childhood. Viruses, 14(6), 1277.

Torque teno virus primary infection kinetics in early childhood

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Author: Väisänen, Elina1; Kuisma, Inka1; Mäkinen, Marjaana2;
Organizations: 1Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
2MediCity, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
3Immunogenetics Laboratory, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
4PEDEGO Research Unit, Medical Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, 90220 Oulu, Finland
5Centre for Population Health Research and Research Centre for Integrated Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
6Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, 20520 Turku, Finland
7Helsinki University Hospital Laboratory (HUSLAB), 00290 Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-01-30


Human torque teno viruses (TTVs) are a diverse group of small nonenveloped viruses with circular, single-stranded DNA genomes. These elusive anelloviruses are harbored in the blood stream of most humans and have thus been considered part of the normal flora. Whether the primary infection as a rule take(s) place before or after birth has been debated. The aim of our study was to determine the time of TTV primary infection and the viral load and strain variations during infancy and follow-up for up to 7 years. TTV DNAs were quantified in serial serum samples from 102 children by a pan-TTV quantitative PCR, and the amplicons from representative time points were cloned and sequenced to disclose the TTV strain diversity. We detected an unequivocal rise in TTV-DNA prevalence, from 39% at 4 months of age to 93% at 2 years; all children but one, 99%, became TTV-DNA positive before age 4 years. The TTV-DNA quantities ranged from 5 × 101 to 4 × 107 copies/mL, both within and between the children. In conclusion, TTV primary infections occur mainly after birth, and increase during the first two years with high intra- and interindividual variation in both DNA quantities and virus strains.

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Series: Viruses
ISSN: 1999-4915
ISSN-E: 1999-4915
ISSN-L: 1999-4915
Volume: 14
Issue: 6
Article number: 1277
DOI: 10.3390/v14061277
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
Funding: This research was funded by the Finnish-Norwegian Medical Foundation, the Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, the Life and Health Medical Support Association, and the Swedish Cultural Fund. The DIPP study has been supported by grants from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International (grants 4-1998-274, 4-1999-731, 4-2001-435), the European Union (grant BMH4- CT98-3314), the Academy of Finland (grants 68292, 1122539), the Novo Nordisk Foundation, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), the Special Research Funds for University Hospitals in Finland, the Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment, the Diabetes Research Foundation in Finland, the Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, the Emil Aaltonen Foundation, the Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation, the Foundation for Pediatric Research, and the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation. Open access funding provided by University of Helsinki.
Dataset Reference: The obtained TTV sequences have been submitted to GeneBank. All data and material produced in this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (