University of Oulu

Mirmojarabian, S. A., Lammentausta, E., Liukkonen, E., Ahvenjärvi, L., Junttila, J., Nieminen, M. T., & Liimatainen, T. (2022). Myocardium assessment by relaxation along fictitious field, extracellular volume, feature tracking, and myocardial strain in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. International Journal of Biomedical Imaging, 2022, 1–9.

Myocardium assessment by relaxation along fictitious field, extracellular volume, feature tracking, and myocardial strain in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

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Author: Mirmojarabian, Seyed Amir1; Lammentausta, Eveliina2; Liukkonen, Esa2;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics, And Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
3Research Unit of Internal Medicine, Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Hindawi, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-01-30


Background: Previous research has shown impaired global longitudinal strain (GLS) and slightly elevated extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (HTN LVH). Up to now, only little attention has been paid to interactions between macromolecules and free water in hypertrophied myocardium.

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of relaxation along a fictitious field with rank 2 (RAFF2) in HTN LVH patients.

Study Type: Single institutional case control.

Subjects: 9 HTN LVH (age, 69 ± 10 years) and 11 control subjects (age, 54 ± 12 years).

Field Strength/Sequence: Relaxation time mapping (T1, T1p, and TRAFF2 with 11.8 μT maximum radio frequency field amplitude) was performed at 1.5 T using a Siemens Aera (Erlangen, Germany) scanner equipped with an 18-channel body array coil.

Assessment: ECV was calculated using pre- and postcontrast T1, and global strains parameters were assessed by Segment CMR (Medviso AB Co, Sweden). The parametric maps of T1p and TRAFF2 were computed using a monoexponential model, while the Bloch-McConnell equations were solved numerically to model effect of the chemical exchange during radio frequency pulses.

Statistical Tests: Parametric maps were averaged over myocardium for each subject to be used in statistical analysis. Kolmogorov-Smirnov was used as the normality test followed by Student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation to determine the difference between the HTN LVH patients and controls along with Hedges’ g effect size and the association between variables, respectively.

Results: TRAFF2 decreased statistically (83 ± 2 ms vs 88 ± 6 ms, P < 0.031), and global longitudinal strain was impaired (GLS, −14 ± 3 vs −18 ± 2, P < 0.002) in HTN LVH patients compared to the controls, respectively. Also, significant negative correlation was found between TRAFF2 and GLS (r = −0.53, P < 0.05).

Data conclusion: Our results suggest that TRAFF2 decrease in HTN LVH patients may be explained by gradual collagen accumulation which can be reflected in GLS changes. Most likely, it increases the water proton interactions and consequently decreases TRAFF2 before myocardial scarring.

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Series: International journal of biomedical imaging
ISSN: 1687-4188
ISSN-E: 1687-4196
ISSN-L: 1687-4188
Volume: 2022
Article number: 9198691
DOI: 10.1155/2022/9198691
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 217 Medical engineering
Funding: The study is supported by the following organizations: Academy of Finland, Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research, and Aarne Koskelo Foundation.
Copyright information: © 2022 Seyed Amir Mirmojarabian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.