University of Oulu

Maksymyuk, T., Gazda, J., Bugar, G., Gazda, V., Liyanage, M., & Dohler, M. (2022). Blockchain-empowered service management for the decentralized metaverse of things. IEEE Access, 10, 99025–99037.

Blockchain-empowered service management for the decentralized metaverse of things

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Author: Maksymyuk, Taras1; Gazda, Juraj2; Bugár, Gabriel2;
Organizations: 1Department of Telecommunications, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine
2Department of Computers and Informatics, Technical University of Košice (TUKE), Košice, Slovakia
3Faculty of Economics and Informatics, Janos Selye University, Komárno, Slovakia
4School of Computer Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
5Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6Advanced Technology Group, Ericsson Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-02-01


The future of networking will be driven by the current emerging trends of combining the physical and virtual realities in cyberspace. Considering the ambient pandemic challenges, the role of virtual and augmented reality will definitely grow over time by transforming into the paradigm of the Metaverse of Things, where each person, thing or other entity will simultaneously exist within multiple synchronized realities. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for future metaverse applications composed of multiple synchronized data flows from multiple operators through multiple wearable devices and with different quality requirements. A new service quality model is proposed based on a customizable utility function for each individual data flow. The proposed approach is based on dynamic fine-grained data flow allocation and service selection using non-fungible tokens, which can be traded over the blockchain among users and operators in a decentralized mobile network environment.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 10
Pages: 99025 - 99037
DOI: 10.1109/access.2022.3205739
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Ukrainian Government under Project 0120U100674 (‘‘Designing the novel decentralized mobile network based on blockchain architecture and artificial intelligence for 5G/6G development in Ukraine’’); in part by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under Project APVV-18-0214 and Project APVV-21-0318; in part by the Scientific Grant Agency, Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport, Slovakia, under Contract 1/0268/19; in part by the Academy of Finland Project 6Genesis Flagship under Grant 318927; in part by the Science Foundation Ireland under Connect Center (13RC/2077_P2) projects; and in part by the Pallas Athene Domus Meriti Foundation.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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