University of Oulu

Elijah Adesanya, Amarachi Ezu, Hoang Nguyen, Christine Rößler, Harisankar Sreenivasan, Katja Ohenoja, Paivo Kinnunen, Mirja Illikainen, Hydration of blended ladle slag and calcium aluminate cement, Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 66, 2023, 105855, ISSN 2352-7102,

Hydration of blended ladle slag and calcium aluminate cement

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Author: Adesanya, Elijah1; Ezu, Amarachi1; Nguyen, Hoang1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Technology, Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, PO Box 4300, 90014, University of Oulu, Finland
2F.A. Finger-Institute for Building Material Science, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Weimar, Thüringen, Germany
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-02-06


Partial replacement and co-hydration of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) with ladle slag was investigated in this study as a pathway in valorizing the slag and reducing the economic cost of CAC. The impact of this replacement on the physical and microstructural properties were analysed using different techniques such as mechanical strength test, freeze-thaw, sulfate attack, XRD, SEM etc. Thermodynamic modelling was used to predict the phase assemblages of the blended cement using the hydration kinetics of the system. Experimental results showed the reference CAC mortar and the substituted mortar exhibited comparable strength gain at 7 and 28 days, and durability as measured by sulfate attack, abrasion, and freeze-thaw resistance. A low water-to-binder ratio (0.35) lessened the effect of conversion on the hydrates, as XRD showed metastable CAH₁₀ and C₂AH7.5 as the hydrates at 7, 28 and 60 days. This however can convert later to the thermodynamically stable phase C₃AH₆. Thermodynamic modelling suggests these two metastable phases as major binding phases, while Si-hydrogarnet and FeOOH appeared a minor trace in the binder.

*Cement chemistry notation used, where C = CaO, A = Al₂O₃ and H = H₂O

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Series: Journal of building engineering
ISSN: 2352-7102
ISSN-E: 2352-7102
ISSN-L: 2352-7102
Volume: 66
Pages: 1 - 12
Article number: 105855
DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2023.105855
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 212 Civil and construction engineering
Funding: This research was partly undertaken in the FLOW Project (project number 8904/31/2017) funded by Business Finland in the ERA-MIN 2 Innovation program (EU Horizon 2020 program). Caltra Netherland B.V and SSAB Europe Oy are acknowledged for providing CAC and ladle slag. Elijah Adesanya acknowledges the Finnish Cultural Foundation for the postdoctoral research grant (grant #00201230). P.K. and H.N. are grateful for the financial support from the University of Oulu & The Academy of Finland Profi5 326291, as well as the Academy of Finland project 329477.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 329477
Detailed Information: 329477 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (