University of Oulu

Moswete, N.N., Saarinen, J., Thapa, B. (2022). Socio-economic Impacts of Community-Based Ecotourism on Rural Livelihoods: A Case Study of Khawa Village in the Kalahari Region, Botswana. In: Saarinen, J., Lubbe, B., Moswete, N.N. (eds) Southern African Perspectives on Sustainable Tourism Management. Geographies of Tourism and Global Change. Springer, Cham.

Socio-economic impacts of community-based ecotourism on rural livelihoods : a case study of Khawa village in the Kalahari region, Botswana

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Author: Moswete, Naomi N.1; Saarinen, Jarkko2,3; Thapa, Brijesh4
Organizations: 1Department of Environmental Science, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
2Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
4School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2024-06-01


Community-based tourism has become an increasingly important activity for local development in southern Africa. This chapter uses a case study approach to explore the socio-economic impacts of community-based ecotourism on a remote community in the Kalahari region of western Botswana. The study was conducted in Khawa, a remote village which is located within a wildlife management area (WMA) designated mainly for wildlife conservation purposes. Data were collected using a semi-structured household survey and a telephone survey. Additionally, a participatory observation method for information/data collection was utilised. The main results indicate the following benefits: increased awareness of tourism as a business and a leisure pursuit, reduced illegal hunting activities, improved visibility of Khawa village as a tourist destination, seasonal job opportunities, monetary benefits to the Community Trust, individual cash income, game meat and infrastructure developments for tourism and the community. However, there were also negative impacts from tourism, such as noise pollution and disruption of the village peace and tranquillity, especially during the annual Khawa Dune Challenge and Cultural Festival. Thus, more sustainable tourism development oriented activities and projects which are beneficial and inclusive of the local people of Khawa are recommended.

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Series: Geographies of tourism and global change
ISSN: 2366-5610
ISSN-E: 2366-5629
ISSN-L: 2366-5610
ISBN: 978-3-030-99435-8
ISBN Print: 978-3-030-99434-1
Pages: 109 - 124
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-99435-8_8
Host publication: Southern African perspectives on sustainable tourism management : tourism and changing localities
Host publication editor: Saarinen, Jarkko
Lubbe, Berendien
Moswete, Naomi N.
Type of Publication: A3 Book chapter
Field of Science: 519 Social and economic geography
Copyright information: © 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG