University of Oulu

Tougaard, N. H., Frimodt-Møller, M., Salmenkari, H., Stougaard, E. B., Zawadzki, A. D., Mattila, I. M., Hansen, T. W., Legido-Quigley, C., Hörkkö, S., Forsblom, C., Groop, P.-H., Lehto, M., & Rossing, P. (2022). Effects of butyrate supplementation on inflammation and kidney parameters in type 1 diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(13), 3573.

Effects of butyrate supplementation on inflammation and kidney parameters in type 1 diabetes : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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Author: Tougaard, Ninna H.1; Frimodt-Møller, Marie1,2; Salmenkari, Hanne3,4,5;
Organizations: 1Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, 2730 Herlev, Denmark
2Department of Nephrology, Herlev University Hospital, 2730 Herlev, Denmark
3Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
4Department of Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
5Clinical and Molecular Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine Research Programs, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
6Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Research Unit of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
7Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
8Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
9Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-02-15


Type 1 diabetes is associated with increased intestinal inflammation and decreased abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria. We investigated the effect of butyrate on inflammation, kidney parameters, HbA1c, serum metabolites and gastrointestinal symptoms in persons with type 1 diabetes, albuminuria and intestinal inflammation. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel clinical study involving 53 participants randomized to 3.6 g sodium butyrate daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in fecal calprotectin. Additional endpoints were the change in fecal short chain fatty acids, intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity and immunoglobulins, serum lipopolysaccharide, CRP, albuminuria, kidney function, HbA1c, metabolites and gastrointestinal symptoms. The mean age was 54 ± 13 years, and the median [Q1:Q3] urinary albumin excretion was 46 [14:121] mg/g. The median fecal calprotectin in the butyrate group was 48 [26:100] μg/g at baseline, and the change was −1.0 [−20:10] μg/g; the median in the placebo group was 61 [25:139] μg/g at baseline, and the change was −12 [−95:1] μg/g. The difference between the groups was not significant (p = 0.24); neither did we find an effect of butyrate compared to placebo on the other inflammatory markers, kidney parameters, HbA1c, metabolites nor gastrointestinal symptoms. Twelve weeks of butyrate supplementation did not reduce intestinal inflammation in persons with type 1 diabetes, albuminuria and intestinal inflammation.

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Series: Journal of clinical medicine
ISSN: 2077-0383
ISSN-E: 2077-0383
ISSN-L: 2077-0383
Volume: 11
Issue: 13
Article number: 3573
DOI: 10.3390/jcm11133573
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3111 Biomedicine
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: The Novo Nordisk Foundation: PROTON: PeRsOnalizing Treatment of diabetic Nephropathy (grant number NNFOC0013659).
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (