University of Oulu

Su, X., Zhu, R., Wang, B., Bai, Y., Ding, T., Sun, T., Lü, X., Peng, J., & Zheng, Y. (2022). Generation of 8–20 μm mid-infrared ultrashort femtosecond laser pulses via difference frequency generation. Photonics, 9(6), 372.

Generation of 8–20 μm mid-infrared ultrashort femtosecond laser pulses via difference frequency generation

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Author: Su, Xinyang1; Zhu, Ruixue2; Wang, Bolin1;
Organizations: 1School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, No. 3 Shangyuancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100044, China
2Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-02-15


Mid-infrared (MIR) ultrashort laser pulses have a wide range of applications in the fields of environmental monitoring, laser medicine, food quality control, strong-field physics, attosecond science, and some other aspects. Recent years have seen great developments in MIR laser technologies. Traditional solid-state and fiber lasers focus on the research of the short-wavelength MIR region. However, due to the limitation of the gain medium, they still cannot cover the long-wavelength region from 8 to 20 µm. This paper summarizes the developments of 8–20 μm MIR ultrafast laser generation via difference frequency generation (DFG) and reviews related theoretical models. Finally, the feasibility of MIR power scaling by nonlinear-amplification DFG and methods for measuring the power of DFG-based MIR are analyzed from the author’s perspective.

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Series: Photonics
ISSN: 2304-6732
ISSN-E: 2304-6732
ISSN-L: 2304-6732
Volume: 9
Issue: 6
Article number: 372
DOI: 10.3390/photonics9060372
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This research was funded by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2021RC206), Natural Science Foundation of Beijing Municipality (4182054, 4212052), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (61527822, 61735005, 61925010).
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (