University of Oulu

Vitikka, O., Iljana, M., Heikkilä, A., Tkalenko, I., Koriuchev, N., Shehovsov, D., Malkki, A., & Fabritius, T. (2022). Suitability of auger pressing briquettes for blast furnace use based on laboratory tests. Minerals, 12(7), 868.

Suitability of auger pressing briquettes for blast furnace use based on laboratory tests

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Author: Vitikka, Olli1; Iljana, Mikko1; Heikkilä, Anne1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2AMCOM GROUP LLC, 34 Saint James Drive, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33418, USA
3Kivisampo Oy, Tehontie 45, FI-45200 Kouvola, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-02-15


Briquetting is a process in which fine materials unsuitable for use as such are agglomerated to achieve a larger particle size. Auger pressing is a novel briquetting method to efficiently improve the recycling of by-products from iron and steelmaking. The high-temperature properties of auger pressing briquettes mainly consisting of blast furnace sludge and mill scale were evaluated. The aim was to determine the suitability of the briquettes for blast furnace (BF) ironmaking by studying the reduction, swelling, and cracking behavior using a laboratory-scale furnace. The blast furnace simulator (BFS) capable of performing non-isothermal reduction experiments with changing gas compositions was used to simulate the different stages of reduction up to 1100 °C in an atmosphere with N2, CO, and CO2 gases. A commercial olivine pellet and a conventional industrial BF briquette were used as reference samples. The sample weight losses were monitored by thermogravimetry, swelling as a change in the volume, and cracking by visual inspection. The samples were analyzed using microscopes and an elemental analyzer. Based on the BFS experiments, the briquettes proved to be a promising raw material for BF use. They were of a self-reducing quality due to their carbon content and showed reduction to metallic iron faster compared to the reference samples. The swelling was slight, and despite the minor cracking the structure of the briquettes did not degrade.

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Series: Minerals
ISSN: 2075-163X
ISSN-E: 2075-163X
ISSN-L: 2075-163X
Volume: 12
Issue: 7
Article number: 868
DOI: 10.3390/min12070868
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 214 Mechanical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This research was funded by Business Finland as a part of the Towards Carbon Neutral Metals (TOCANEM) research program, grant number 40693/31/2020.
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (