University of Oulu

Mackintosh, A., Laetsch, D. R., Baril, T., Foster, R. G., Dincă, V., Vila, R., Hayward, A., & Lohse, K. (2022). The genome sequence of the lesser marbled fritillary, Brenthis ino , and evidence for a segregating neo-Z chromosome. G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics, 12(6), jkac069.

The genome sequence of the lesser marbled fritillary, Brenthis ino, and evidence for a segregating neo-Z chromosome

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Author: Mackintosh, Alexander1,2; Laetsch, Dominik R.1; Baril, Tobias3;
Organizations: 1Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK
2Corresponding author: Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK
3Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK
4Edinburgh Genomics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK
5Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
6Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Barcelona 08003, Spain
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Genetics Society of America, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-02-22


The lesser marbled fritillary, Brenthis ino (Rottemburg, 1775), is a species of Palearctic butterfly. Male Brenthis ino individuals have been reported to have between 12 and 14 pairs of chromosomes, a much-reduced chromosome number than is typical in butterflies. Here, we present a chromosome-level genome assembly for Brenthis ino, as well as gene and transposable element annotations. The assembly is 411.8 Mb in length with a contig N50 of 9.6 Mb and a scaffold N50 of 29.5 Mb. We also show evidence that the male individual from which we generated HiC data was heterozygous for a neo-Z chromosome, consistent with inheriting 14 chromosomes from one parent and 13 from the other. This genome assembly will be a valuable resource for studying chromosome evolution in Lepidoptera, as well as for comparative and population genomics more generally.

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Series: G3. Genes, genomes, genetics
ISSN: 2160-1836
ISSN-E: 2160-1836
ISSN-L: 2160-1836
Volume: 12
Issue: 6
Article number: jkac069
DOI: 10.1093/g3journal/jkac069
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology
Funding: AM is supported by an E4 PhD studentship from the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC, NE/S007407/1). KL is supported by a fellowship from the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC, NE/L011522/1). RV is supported by Grant PID2019-107078GB-I00 funded by Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación and Agencia Estatal de Investigación (MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033). VD is supported by the Academy of Finland (Academy Research Fellow, decision no. 328895). This work was supported by a European Research Council starting grant (ModelGenomLand 757648) to KL and a David Phillips Fellowship (BB/N020146/1) by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) to AH.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 328895
Detailed Information: 328895 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: Supplementary Table 1 contains the metadata for the four individuals used for this project. The genome assembly, gene annotation, and raw sequence data can be found at the European Nucleotide Archive under project accession PRJEB49202. The scripts used for analyzing HiC data ( and, the script used for calculating site degeneracy (, and the script used for visualizing synteny ( can be found at the following github repository: The mitochondrial genome sequence and the TE annotation can be found at the same repository. Supplemental material is available at G3 online.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.