University of Oulu

D. Abdelhameed, K. Umebayashi, I. Atzeni and A. Tölli, "Enhanced Signal Detection and Constellation Design for Massive SIMO Communications With 1-Bit ADCs," in IEEE Access, vol. 11, pp. 11749-11765, 2023, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3242210

Enhanced signal detection and constellation design for massive SIMO communications with 1-Bit ADCs

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Author: Abdelhameed, Doaa1,2; Umebayashi, Kenta1; Atzeni, Italo3;
Organizations: 1Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan
2Department of Electrical Engineering, Aswan University, Aswan 81528, Egypt
3Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-03-08


In this paper, we investigate a transmitter and receiver design for a single-user massive SIMO (single-input multiple-output) system with 1-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) at the base station (BS), where the user adopts higher-order modulation, e.g., 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM), for the data transmission. For the channel estimation and the signal detection, linear least-squares (LS) estimation and maximum ratio combining (MRC) are respectively employed. In this context, we first introduce closed-form formulas for the mean of the estimated symbols and for the correlation matrix between their real and imaginary parts considering the effect of 1-bit quantization. The study of the distribution of the estimated symbols indicates that, in presence of 1-bit ADCs, the conventional 16-QAM detector and the typical square 16-QAM modulation are not adequate. In light of this, we propose three novel symbol detectors and re-design the 16-QAM modulation in order to improve the symbol error rate (SER). Furthermore, the upper bound on the SER is analyzed based on the pair-wise error probability and the boundary equation between two regions is also studied. Through numerical results, the proposed framework, i.e., the symbol detector and the transmit constellation design, shows a significant enhancement in the SER performance against the conventional detector and the typical square 16-QAM modulation.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 11
Pages: 11749 - 11765
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3242210
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: The work of Doaa Abdelhameed was supported by the Ministry of Higher Education of the Arab Republic of Egypt. The work of Kenta Umebayashi was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI under Grant JP18KK0109. The work of Italo Atzeni was supported by the Academy of Finland under Grant 348396 (HIGH-6G) and Grant 336449 (Profi6). The work of Antti Tölli was supported by the Academy of Finland under Grant 318927 (6G Flagship) and Grant 319059 (CCCWEE).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 348396
Detailed Information: 348396 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
336449 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
319059 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see