University of Oulu

Napolitano, N. R., Gatto, M., Spiniello, C., Cantiello, M., Hilker, M., Arnaboldi, M., Tortora, C., Chaturvedi, A., D’Abrusco, R., Li, R., Paolillo, M., Peletier, R., Saifollahi, T., Spavone, M., Venhola, A., Capaccioli, M., & Longo, G. (2022). The fornax cluster vlt spectroscopic survey: Iv. Cold kinematical substructures in the fornax core from costa. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 657, A94.

The Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey : IV. cold kinematical substructures in the Fornax core from COSTA

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Author: Napolitano, N. R.1,2,3; Gatto, M.3,4; Spiniello, C.3,5;
Organizations: 1School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-sen University Zhuhai Campus, 2 Daxue Road, Tangjia, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519082, PR China
2CSST Science Center for Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Great Bay Area, 519082 Zhuhai, PR China
3INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Naples, Italy
4Department of Physics E. Pancini, University Federico II, Via Cinthia 6, 80126 Naples, Italy
5Sub-Department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK
6INAF Osservatorio Astr. di Teramo, Via Maggini, 64100 Teramo, Italy
7European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
8Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, 02138 Cambridge, MA, USA
9INFN, Sez. di Napoli, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli, Italy
10Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 72, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
11Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 27.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: EDP Sciences, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-03-08


Context: Substructures in stellar haloes are a strong prediction of galaxy formation models in ΛCDM. Cold streams such as those from small satellite galaxies are extremely difficult to detect and kinematically characterize. The COld STream finder Algorithm (COSTA) is a novel algorithm able to find streams in the phase space of planetary nebulae (PNe) and globular cluster (GC) populations. COSTA isolates groups of (N) particles with small velocity dispersion (between 10 km s−1 and ∼120 km s−1) using an iterative (n) sigma-clipping over a defined number of (k) neighbor particles.

Aims: We applied COSTA to a catalog of PNe and GCs from the Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey (FVSS) within ∼200 kpc from the cluster core in order to detect cold substructures and characterize their kinematics (mean velocity and velocity dispersion).

Methods: We selected more than 2000 PNe and GCs from the FVSS catalogs and adopted a series of optimized setups of the COSTA parameters based on Montecarlo simulations of the PN and GC populations to search for realistic stream candidates. We find 13 cold substructures with velocity dispersion ranging from ∼20 to ∼100 km s−1, which are likely associated either to large galaxies or to ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies in the Fornax core.

Results: The luminosities of these streams show a clear correlation with internal velocity dispersion, and their surface brightness correlates with their size and distance from the cluster center, which is compatible with the dissipative processes producing them. However, we cannot exclude that some of these substructures formed by violent relaxation of massive satellites that finally merged into the central galaxy. Among these substructures we have: (1) a stream connecting NGC 1387 to the central galaxy, NGC 1399, previously reported in the literature; (2) a new giant stream produced by the interaction of NGC 1382 with NGC 1380 and (possibly) NGC 1381; (3) a series of streams kinematically connected to nearby UCDs; and (4) clumps of tracers with no clear kinematical association to close cluster members.

Conclusions: We show evidence for a variety of cold substructures predicted in simulations. Most of the streams are kinematically connected to UCDs, supporting the scenario that they can be remnants of disrupted dwarf systems. However, we also show the presence of long coherent substructures connecting cluster members and isolated clumps of tracers possibly left behind by their parent systems before these merged into the central galaxy. Unfortunately, the estimated low-surface brightness of these streams does not allow us to find their signatures in the current imaging data and deeper observations are needed to confirm them.

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Series: Astronomy and astrophysics
ISSN: 0004-6361
ISSN-E: 1432-0746
ISSN-L: 0004-6361
Volume: 657
Article number: A94
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202141872
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: N.R.N. acknowledges financial support from the “One hundred top talent program of Sun Yat-sen University” grant N. 71000-18841229, and from the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skodowska-Curie grant agreement n. 721463 to the SUNDIAL ITN network. C.S. is supported by an ‘Hintze Fellow’ at the Oxford Centre for Astro- physical Surveys, which is funded through generous support from the Hintze Family Charitable Foundation.
EU Grant Number: (721463) SUNDIAL - SUrvey Network for Deep Imaging Analysis and Learning
Copyright information: © ESO 2022