University of Oulu

Watkins, A. E., Salo, H., Laurikainen, E., Díaz-García, S., Comerón, S., Janz, J., Su, A. H., Buta, R., Athanassoula, E., Bosma, A., Ho, L. C., Holwerda, B. W., Kim, T., Knapen, J. H., Laine, S., Menéndez-Delmestre, K., Peletier, R. F., Sheth, K., & Zaritsky, D. (2022). Stellar masses, sizes, and radial profiles for 465 nearby early-type galaxies: An extension to the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in Galaxies (S 4 G). Astronomy & Astrophysics, 660, A69.

Stellar masses, sizes, and radial profiles for 465 nearby early-type galaxies : an extension to the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in Galaxies (S⁴G)

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Author: Watkins, A. E.1,2,3; Salo, H.1; Laurikainen, E.1;
Organizations: 1Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
2Centre for Astrophysics Research, School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
3Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK
4Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
5Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
6Department for Physics, Engineering Physics and Astrophysics, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
7Finnish Centre of Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vesilinnantie 5, 20014 Turku, Finland
8Specim, Spectral Imaging Ltd., Elektroniikkatie 13, 90590 Oulu, Finland
9Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
10Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
11Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China
12Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China
13University of Louisville, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 102 Natural Science Building, 40292 KY, Louisville, USA
14Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
15IPAC, Mail Code 314-6, Caltech, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
16Valongo Observatory, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antônio, 43, Saúde CEP, 20080-090 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
17Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
18NASA Headquarters Mary W. Jackson Building, 300 E Street SW, Washington, DC 20546, USA
19Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.7 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: EDP Sciences, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-03-08


Context.: The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S⁴G) is a detailed study of over 2300 nearby galaxies in the near-infrared (NIR), which has been critical to our understanding of the detailed structures of nearby galaxies. Because the sample galaxies were selected only using radio-derived velocities, however, the survey favored late-type disk galaxies over lenticulars and ellipticals.

Aims: A follow-up Spitzer survey was conducted to rectify this bias, adding 465 early-type galaxies (ETGs) to the original sample, to be analyzed in a manner consistent with the initial survey. We present the data release of this ETG extension, up to the third data processing pipeline (P3): surface photometry.

Methods: We produce curves of growth and radial surface brightness profiles (with and without inclination corrections) using reduced and masked Spitzer IRAC 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm images produced through Pipelines 1 and 2, respectively. From these profiles, we derive the following integrated quantities: total magnitudes, stellar masses, concentration parameters, and galaxy size metrics. We showcase NIR scaling relations for ETGs among these quantities.

Results: We examine general trends across the whole S⁴G and ETG extension among our derived parameters, highlighting differences between ETGs and late-type galaxies (LTGs). The latter are, on average, more massive and more concentrated than LTGs, and subtle distinctions are seen among ETG morphological subtypes. We also derive the following scaling relations and compare them with previous results in visible light: mass-size (both half-light and isophotal), mass-concentration, mass-surface brightness (central, effective, and within 1 kpc), and mass-color.

Conclusions: We find good agreement with previous works, though some relations (e.g., mass-central surface brightness) will require more careful multicomponent decompositions to be fully understood. The relations between mass and isophotal radius and between mass and surface brightness within 1 kpc, in particular, show notably small scatter. The former provides important constraints on the limits of size growth in galaxies, possibly related to star formation thresholds, while the latter–particularly when paired with the similarly tight relation for LTGs–showcases the striking self-similarity of galaxy cores, suggesting they evolve little over cosmic time. All of the profiles and parameters described in this paper will be provided to the community via the NASA/IPAC database on a dedicated website.

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Series: Astronomy and astrophysics
ISSN: 0004-6361
ISSN-E: 1432-0746
ISSN-L: 0004-6361
Volume: 660
Article number: A69
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202142627
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: AW acknowledges support from the STFC [ST/S00615X/1]. SC acknowledges funding from the State Research Agency (AEI-MCINN) of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation under the grants “The structure and evolution of galaxies and their central regions” with reference PID2019-105602GB-I00/10.13039/501100011033, and “Thick discs, relics of the infancy of galaxies" with reference PID2020-113213GA-I00. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 893673 (SDG), as well as grant agreement No. 721463 to the SUNDIAL ITN network (AHS, HS, JHK), from the State Research Agency (AEI-MCINN) of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation under the grant “The structure and evolution of galaxies and their central regions” with reference PID2019-105602GB-I00/10.13039/501100011033, and from the IAC project P/300724 which is financed by the Ministry of Science and Innovation, through the State Budget and by the Canary Islands Department of Economy, Knowledge and Employment, through the Regional Budget of the Autonomous Community. EA and AB gratefully acknowledge financial support from CNES (Centre National d’Études Spatiales, France). LCH is supported by the National Science Foundation of China (11721303 and 11991052) and the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFA0400702). TK acknowledges support from the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2019R1I1A3A02062242). KMD thanks the support of the Serrapilheira Institute (grant Serra-1709-17357) as well as that of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq grant 312702/2017-5) and of the Carlos Chagas Filho Foundation for Supporting Research in the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ grant E-26/203.184/2017), Brazil.
EU Grant Number: (721463) SUNDIAL - SUrvey Network for Deep Imaging Analysis and Learning
Copyright information: © ESO 2022