University of Oulu

I. Niskanen et al., "Non-Visual Sensing of Metallic Pavement Markers From a Moving Vehicle," in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 3352-3359, March 2023, doi: 10.1109/TITS.2022.3225857

Non-visual sensing of metallic pavement markers from a moving vehicle

Saved in:
Author: Niskanen, Ilpo1; Kolli, Tanja1; Immonen, Matti1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.6 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-03-13


Snow and ice covering paved surfaces cause problems for roads and other vehicles operating in cold regions. There are notable risks for road accidents and reduced performance of vehicle movements, e.g., in industrial facilities such as ports, when road markings and marked pathways are not visually observable. In this study, metallic paved surface markers identified by metal sensors are tested. The sound signals captured by a metal detector attached to the vehicle are used to detect the markings. Results indicate that the tested method for reading markings through snow is effective at lower speeds. The main advantages of the tested technology are effectiveness in snowy and icy surface conditions, low upfront cost detection technology in some environments, robust system without moving parts, high sampling rate, and low operating costs. The procedure is not restricted to specific environmental conditions, such as snow and ice; it also has the potential to detect markings through layers of mud, tree leaves or sand. The detectors have application prospects in intelligent transportation system applications at airports, logistics terminals and industrial facilities.

see all

Series: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems
ISSN: 1524-9050
ISSN-E: 1558-0016
ISSN-L: 1524-9050
Volume: 24
Issue: 3
Pages: 3352 - 3359
DOI: 10.1109/tits.2022.3225857
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 119 Other natural sciences
Funding: This work was supported by the European Regional Development Fund under Grant A74419.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see