University of Oulu

Jaakkola, M. S., Hyrkäs-Palmu, H., & Jaakkola, J. J. K. (2022). Residential exposure to dampness is related to reduced level of asthma control among adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(18), 11338.

Residential exposure to dampness is related to reduced level of asthma control among adults

Saved in:
Author: Jaakkola, Maritta S.1; Hyrkäs-Palmu, Henna1; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.1,2
Organizations: 1Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research and Biocenter Oulu, Population Health, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2Finnish Meteorological Institute, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-03-13


We assessed potential relations between indicators of indoor dampness and mold exposures at home and the level of asthma control among adults. The present population-based cross-sectional study, the Northern Finnish Asthma Study (NoFAS), included 1995 adult subjects with bronchial asthma who replied to study questionnaires (response rate: 40.4%). The Asthma Control Test (ACT) was used as the measure of asthma control. We calculated the mean difference in ACT score (ACTdifference) and the risk ratio (RR) of poor asthma control (ACT ≤ 19) for the exposure and reference groups and applied Poisson regression to adjust for potential confounding. Exposure to indoor dampness at home was related to a significantly reduced level of asthma control (ACTdifference: −0.83, 95% CI: −1.60 to −0.07), especially among men (ACTdifference: −2.68, 95% CI: −4.00 to −1.37). Water damage (aRR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.65) and indoor dampness, especially among men (aRR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.20), increased the risk of poor asthma control. We provide evidence that exposure to indoor dampness at home reduces asthma control among adults, especially in men. Indoor visible mold and mold odor were not significantly related to asthma control. Advice on how to prevent indoor dampness at home should be an important part of asthma management.

see all

Series: International journal of environmental research and public health
ISSN: 1661-7827
ISSN-E: 1660-4601
ISSN-L: 1661-7827
Volume: 19
Issue: 18
Article number: 11338
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph191811338
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
Funding: This research was funded by the Academy of Finland, grant number 310372 (GLORIA consortium), the Research Foundation of the Pulmonary Diseases, the Finnish Anti-Tuberculosis Association Foundation, and the University of Oulu strategic funds for Biocenter.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 310372
Detailed Information: 310372 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (