University of Oulu

Ahmad, I., Suomalainen, J., Porambage, P., Gurtov, A., Huusko, J., & Hoyhtya, M. (2022). Security of satellite-terrestrial communications: Challenges and potential solutions. IEEE Access, 10, 96038–96052.

Security of satellite-terrestrial communications : challenges and potential solutions

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Author: Ahmad, Ijaz1; Suomalainen, Jani1; Porambage, Pawani1,2;
Organizations: 1VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland
2Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-03-15


The integration of satellite and terrestrial networks has become inevitable in the next generations of communications networks due to emerging needs of ubiquitous connectivity of remote locations. New and existing services and critical infrastructures in remote locations in sea, on land and in space will be seamlessly connected through a diverse set of terrestrial and non-terrestrial communication technologies. However, the integration of terrestrial and non-terrestrial systems will open up both systems to unique security challenges that can arise due to the migration of security challenges from one to another. Similarly, security challenges can also arise due to the incompatibility of distinct systems or incoherence of security policies. The resulting security implications, thus, can be highly consequential due to the criticality of the infrastructures such as space stations, autonomous ships, and airplanes, for instance. Therefore, in this article we study existing security challenges in satellite-terrestrial communication systems and discuss potential solutions for those challenges. Furthermore, we provide important research directions to encourage future research on existing security gaps.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 10
Pages: 96038 - 96052
DOI: 10.1109/access.2022.3205426
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the CF_Space Project funded by VTT, in part by the AI-NET-ANTILLAS Project funded by Business Finland, and in part by 6G Genesis Flagship Project under Grant 318927. The work of Andrei Gurtov was supported by Automation Program II, Trafikverket and EU AiRMOUR Project under Agreement 101006601.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2022. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see