University of Oulu

Bui, M.N., Rost, S., Auge, M. et al. Low-energy Se ion implantation in MoS2 monolayers. npj 2D Mater Appl 6, 42 (2022).

Low-energy Se ion implantation in MoS2 monolayers

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Author: Bui, Minh N.1,2; Rost, Stefan2,3; Auge, Manuel4;
Organizations: 1Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425, Jülich, Germany
2Department of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52074, Aachen, Germany
3Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-1) and Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich and JARA, 52425, Jülich, Germany
4II. Institute of Physics, Georg-August-University Göttingen, 37077, Göttingen, Germany
5Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz‐Zentrum Dresden‐Rossendorf, 01328, Dresden, Germany
6Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O.Box 11100, FI-00076, Aalto, Finland
7Microelectronics Research Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 8000, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
8Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425, Jülich, Germany
9Department of Physics, Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, V94 T9PX, Ireland
10SuperSTEM Laboratory, SciTech Daresbury Campus, Daresbury, WA4 4AD, UK
11School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-03-17


In this work, we study ultra-low energy implantation into MoS2 monolayers to evaluate the potential of the technique in two-dimensional materials technology. We use 80Se+ ions at the energy of 20 eV and with fluences up to 5.0·1014 cm−2. Raman spectra of the implanted films show that the implanted ions are predominantly incorporated at the sulfur sites and MoS2−2xSe2x alloys are formed, indicating high ion retention rates, in agreement with the predictions of molecular dynamics simulations of Se ion irradiation on MoS2 monolayers. We found that the ion retention rate is improved when implantation is performed at an elevated temperature of the target monolayers. Photoluminescence spectra reveal the presence of defects, which are mostly removed by post-implantation annealing at 200 °C, suggesting that, in addition to the Se atoms in the substitutional positions, weakly bound Se adatoms are the most common defects introduced by implantation at this ion energy.

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Series: npj 2D materials and applications
ISSN: 2397-7132
ISSN-E: 2397-7132
ISSN-L: 2397-7132
Volume: 6
Issue: 1
Article number: 42
DOI: 10.1038/s41699-022-00318-4
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This project is supported by the “Integration of Molecular Components in Functional Macroscopic Systems” initiative of Volkswagen Foundation. We would like to thank the staff at the Helmholtz Nano Facility63 of Forschungszentrum Jülich for helping with substrate fabrication; Dr. Sven Borghardt for setting up equipment and advices on sample preparation; Dr. Christoph Friedrich for fruitful exchanges. We acknowledge the computing time granted through JARA-HPC on the supercomputer JURECA at Forschungszentrum Jülich and also CSC–IT Center for Science Ltd. (Finland). A.V.K. acknowledges funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG), Project KR 4866/2-1 (406129719) and the collaborative research center “Chemistry of Synthetic 2D Materials” SFB-1415-417590517. Generous grants of computer time from the Technical University of Dresden computing cluster (TAURUS) and the High Performance Computing Center (HLRS) in Stuttgart, Germany, are gratefully appreciated. E.O.C. acknowledges the support by the Irish Research Council under the Postgraduate Government of Ireland grant GOIPG/2015/2410.
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