University of Oulu

Kim, M. J., & Hall, C. M. (2022). Application of EMGB to Study Impacts of Public Green Space on Active Transport Behavior: Evidence from South Korea. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(12), 7459. MDPI AG. Retrieved from

Application of EMGB to study impacts of public green space on active transport behavior : evidence from South Korea

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Author: Kim, Myung Ja1; Hall, C. Michael1,2,3,4,5,6
Organizations: 1The College of Hotel & Tourism Management, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
2Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
3Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4Ekonomihögskolan, Linnéuniversitet, Universitetskajen, Landgången 6, 39182 Kalmar, Sweden
5Department of Service Management and Service Studies, Campus Helsingborg, Lund University, 25108 Helsingborg, Sweden
6Centre for Research and Innovation in Tourism, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-03-20


Public green spaces (e.g., parks, green trails, greenways) and motivations to engage in active transport are essential for encouraging walking and cycling. However, how these key factors influence walker and cyclist behavior is potentially being increasingly influenced by the use of smart apps, as they become more ubiquitous in everyday practices. To fill this research gap, this work creates and tests a theoretically integrated study framework grounded in an extended model of goal-directed behavior, including public green space and motivation with perceived usefulness of smart apps. In order to accomplish the purpose of this study, we conducted an online survey of Korean walkers (n = 325) and cyclists (n = 326) between 10 and 25 July 2021 and applied partial least squares, structural equation, and multi-group analysis to validate the research model. Results revealed that active transport users’ awareness of public green space positively influences attitude toward (γ = 0.163), as well as behavioral intention of (γ = 0.159), walking and cycling. Additionally, motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic) greatly influences attitude (γ = 0.539) and behavioral intention (γ = 0.535). Subjective norms (γ = 0.137) and positive (γ = 0.466) and negative anticipated emotions (γ = 0.225) have a significant impact on the desire that leads to behavioral intention. High and low perceived smart app usefulness also significantly moderates between public green space and attitude (t-value = 25.705), public green space and behavioral intention (t-value = 25.726), motivation and attitude (t-value = −25.561), and motivation and behavioral intention (t-value = −15.812). Consequently, the findings are useful to academics and practitioners by providing new knowledge and insights.

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Series: International journal of environmental research and public health
ISSN: 1661-7827
ISSN-E: 1660-4601
ISSN-L: 1661-7827
Volume: 19
Issue: 12
Article number: 7459
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127459
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 519 Social and economic geography
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (