University of Oulu

Adebayo, A., Kiani, S., Ruotsalainen, A. L., Pirttilä, A. M., & Lehosmaa, K. (2023). Growth of floating hook-moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) differs with nutrient and water flow adjustments in greenhouse and cold room conditions. Heliyon, 9(1), e12821.

Growth of floating hook-moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) differs with nutrient and water flow adjustments in greenhouse and cold room conditions

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Author: Adebayo, Adeyemi1; Kiani, Sepideh2; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa1;
Organizations: 1Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, Faculty of Science, FI-90014 University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, Finland
2Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, FI-90014 University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-03-22


Floating hook-moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) is a bryophyte growing in northern aquatic and peatland ecosystems. W. fluitans uptakes metals and excessive amounts of nitrogen from wastewater, which suggests that it may have commercial potential for use in phytoremediation. Optimization of growth conditions would allow artificial cultivation of floating hook moss in large quantities for phytoremediation applications. We tested how application of combined nutrient (NPK 7-2-2 ranging from 0.1 to 1 ml per liter of water) and water flow (ranging from 0.15 to 1.9 ml/min) treatments affect growth of W. fluitans in greenhouse conditions. At the end of the experiment, all treatment combinations were subjected to an additional cold room condition at low temperature (0–2 °C) without constant water flow. The moss generally produced biomass in the various treatment combinations. However, contrary to our expectations, we found that increase of nutrients and water flow had a negative effect on the growth of W. fluitans. The highest growth rates in the experiment were detected in the control unit that had no nutrient addition or applied water flow. Our results suggest that cold temperatures are beneficial for W. fluitans growth. Our results show that the commercial production of W. fluitans may not require nutrient or water flow manipulation, at least in the tested scale. Instead, the growth conditions should mimic the natural cold climate conditions of W. fluitans habitats in northern peatlands and/or spring ecosystems.

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Series: Heliyon
ISSN: 2405-8440
ISSN-E: 2405-8440
ISSN-L: 2405-8440
Volume: 9
Issue: 1
Article number: e12821
DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e12821
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
1172 Environmental sciences
Funding: This study was funded by the Kone Foundation [grant no. 201806416] and the European Regional Development Fund as part of the HybArkt (2018–2021) and TypArkt (2021–2023) projects, and Academy of Finland [MoPoW project; 343565]. The authors would like to thank University of Oulu Botanical gardens staff and Piippa Wäli for assistance in sampling the moss in the field. The authors thank the University of Oulu Biodiverse Anthropocenes, Ecology and Genetics Research Unit and Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Unit for supporting publication cost.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 343565
Detailed Information: 343565 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (